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Table 3 Changes in maximum angle and ROM in ROM tasks

From: Pilot testing of the spring operated wearable enhancer for arm rehabilitation (SpringWear)

  w/o assistance Increase with assistance
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) p value
Shoulder flexion max. (deg) 82.6 (25.1) 27.6 (17.8) < 0.001
Elbow extension max. (deg) 142.7 (22.1) 18.7 (13.2) < 0.001
Forearm PS max. (deg) 122.9 (48.6) 38.8 (32.2) 0.001
Shoulder FE ROM (deg) 53.7 (31.8) 4.1 (14.2) 0.322
Elbow FE ROM (deg) 69.1 (27.9) 16.9 (10.0) < 0.001
Forearm PS ROM (deg) 61.9 (34.9) 3.0 (31.8) 0.736
MCP extension max. (index finger) (deg) 147.0 (22.5) −3.1 (13.8) 0.502
PIP extension max. (index finger) (deg) 99.8 (28.5) 16.2 (20.3) 0.033
DIP extension max (index finger) (deg) 138.4 (26.5) 7.4 (19.5) 0.261
  1. SD is standard deviation. Full extension at elbow, MCP, PIP and DIP joints is 180 degree. Full supination is 180 degree. For patients who needed assistance to pronate instead of supinate, their forearm max pronation angle was measured instead and was converted to have full pronation as 180 degree for statistical analysis. The increase with assistance is averaged across all subjects. The p value tests if this increase was significant
  2. Bolded numbers are p value less than the significance level 0.05