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Table 4 Assessment of agreement among the reviewers on the ratings of PEDro scale using Cohen’s kappa

From: The effects of error-augmentation versus error-reduction paradigms in robotic therapy to enhance upper extremity performance and recovery post-stroke: a systematic review

  Eligibility criteria specified Randomized allocation Concealed allocation Baseline similarity Blinded subjects Blinded therapists Blinded assessors Adequate follow-up Intention to treat analysis Comparison between groups Point estimates and variability
Kappa (mean/SE) 0.629 ± 0.331 0.755 ± 0.228 − 0.083 ± 0.059a 0.567 ± 0.273 0.270 ± 0.234 0.316 ± 0.253 0.698 ± 0.187 0.025 ± 0.212 0.316 ± 0.175 1.000 ± 0.000 0.161 ± 0.275
95% Confidence Interval (CI) −0.021 to 1.000 0.307 to 1.000 −0.198 to 0.032 0.032 to 1.000 −0.190 to 0.729 − 0.179 to 0.811 0.330 to 1.000 − 0.390 to 0.440 −0.027 to 0.659 1.000 to 1.000 −0.378 to 0.700
Observed agreement percentage (P0) 92.31% 92.31% 84.62% 84.62% 61.54% 76.92% 84.62% 53.82% 61.54% 100.00% 69.23%
Expected agreement percentage (Pe) 79.29% 68.64% 85.80% 64.50% 47.34% 66.27% 49.11% 52.66% 43.79% 73.96% 63.31%
  1. aThe kappa score for this item was negative despite having a high number of agreement. This occurred because the expected agreement percentage was greater than the observed agreement percentage