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Table 7 Comparison of the effects of different actuation timings on the user’s effort during uphill walking

From: Powered ankle-foot orthoses: the effects of the assistance on healthy and impaired users while walking

Ref. Incline Protocol Onset Peak Offset Metabolic Soleus
    timings timings timings cost w.r.t. U activity w.r.t. U
Galle, 2015 [19] 15% 4 onset conditions, fixed offset 19% / 66% - 67% -11% /
    26%    -12% /
    34%    -12% similar
    41%    -10% /
Zhang, 2017 [46] □ 10% Iterative learning to find optimal onset, peak, offset timings to reduce metabolic cost 42% 55% 65% -26% /
  1. The effects on the metabolic cost and soleus activity of healthy users during powered uphill walking are reported with respect to the unpowered condition (U). The onset, peak, and offset timings are expressed as a percentage of the gait time. The onset timings in bold are the values found to be optimal to minimize the metabolic cost of walking in the works assessing multiple onset conditions
  2. Symbols (,□) indicate studies performed by the same research group on similar actuation setups. Symbols are consistent between tables. In the work in which different experiments were performed (for example, different onset timings) the common information between the experiments (for example, same offset timing) is reported only once