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Table 3 Specific power, specific force/torque and the efficiency of rotary motors, linear motors and pneumatic piston-coil systems used by the orthoses of this review. Human muscle performance given as reference. Asterisk-tagged values are from external literature, since these data were not provided in the retrieved literature

From: Need for mechanically and ergonomically enhanced tremor-suppression orthoses for the upper limb: a systematic review

  Rotary motor with transmission (#1, #4) [38,39,40,39,, 47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56] Linear motor (#7) [59] Pneumatic piston-coil (#8) [60,61,62,63,64] Human muscle * [83, 84]
Specific power [W/kg] 117.5 (±3.7) 387.30 76.3 50
Specific force/torque 16.7 (±13.8) Nm/kg 212.7 N/kg 243.5 N/kg 20 Nm/kg
Energy efficiency [%] 55.8 (±4.2) 85 * [85] 20 * [86] 35