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Table 2 Alternating time and force applied for bimanual grip force coordination tasks according to three targets of application of grip force of two hands among the healthy and stroke groups

From: Bimanual coordination deficits in hands following stroke and their relationship with motor and functional performance

Target force level Condition Outcome Healthy group (n = 16)   Stroke group (n = 22) Between groups
Mean ± SD Difference t Sig. (2-tailed) Mean ± SD Difference t Sig. (2-tailed) t Sig. (2-tailed)
Total Condition 1 Alternating time (%) 28.3 ± 8.6 18.3 ± 6.3 −11.046 0.000** 24.6 ± 8.0 23.2 ± 11.7 −5.321 0.000** 1.355 0.184
Condition 2 59.9 ± 7.0 43.4 ± 12.8 4.692 0.000**
Condition 1 Force applied (%) 43.7 ± 8.6 12.9 ± 5.2 −3.774 0.002* 50.6 ± 18.9 16.7 ± 15.4 .731 0.473 −1.357 0.183
Condition 2 52.8 ± 6.0 47.3 ± 17.9 1.193 0.241
10% MVC Condition 1 Alternating time (%) 27.5 ± 8.3 23.2 ± 15.3 −4.698 0.000** 24.6 ± 10.2 21.8 ± 15.6 −5.282 0.000** 0.944 0.352
Condition 2 48.7 ± 17.5 44.6 ± 15.1 0.774 0.444
Condition 1 Force applied (%) 57.7 ± 13.0 11.3 ± 8.0 0.794 0.440 60.8 ± 26.8 16.4 ± 18.3 1.094 0.286 −0.408 0.685
Condition 2 55.0 ± 9.4 55.1 ± 23.0 −0.013 0.990
20% MVC Condition 1 Alternating time (%) 30.2 ± 12.3 12.2 ± 6.4 −3.572 0.003* 22.0 ± 9.3 22.5 ± 16.7 −4.503 0.000** 2.347 0.025*
Condition 2 39.5 ± 7.2 41.5 ± 16.7 −0.442 0.661
Condition 1 Force applied (%) 59.7 ± 10.6 13.2 ± 7.9 1.457 0.166 51.8 ± 22.1 21.5 ± 24.4 0.435 0.668 1.306 0.200
Condition 2 54.3 ± 10.2 48.8 ± 24.2 0.852 0.400
40% MVC Condition 1 Alternating time (%) 27.1 ± 13.3 19.4 ± 9.7 −4.078 0.001* 27.3 ± 12.4 25.3 ± 14.8 −3.197 0.004* −0.041 0.967
Condition 2 42.7 ± 13.7 44.0 ± 18.9 −0.218 0.829
Condition 1 Force applied (%) 62.3 ± 9.9 14.2 ± 9.9 4.634 0.000** 39.1 ± 18.0 12.3 ± 13.8 0.314 0.757 4.658 0.000**
Condition 2 49.1 ± 6.1 37.9 ± 17.0 2.527 0.016*
  1. Note: Condition 1 was transfer from the non-dominant to the dominant hand in a healthy subject or from the paretic to the non-paretic hand in a stroke patient; Condition 2 was transfer from the dominant to the non-dominant hand in a healthy subject or from the non-paretic to the paretic hand in a stroke patient
  2. Note: Time was the alternating time for bimanual grip force coordination tasks indicating the transformation of grip force from both hands
  3. Note: Force was the force applied for bimanual grip force coordination tasks indicating the transformation of grip force from both hands
  4. * Significant difference p < 0.05, ** p < 0.001