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Table 4 Changes in SIS scores in the SB and CON groups and repeated measures ANCOVA outcomes

From: Effects of virtual reality-based planar motion exercises on upper extremity function, range of motion, and health-related quality of life: a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized, controlled pilot study

  SB group (n = 12) CON group (n = 12) RM ANCOVA
T0 T1 Change (T1-T0) p-value T2 Change (T2-T0) p-value T0 T1 Change (T1-T0) p-value T2 Change (T2-T0) p-value F p-value
Strength 22.3 ± 14.0 29.4 ± 18.0 7.2 ± 10.0 0.034 27.3 ± 20.0 5.1 ± 12.2 0.153 19.7 ± 11.4 28.3 ± 13.1 8.58 ± 10.7 0.027 27.0 ± 14.3 7.3 ± 12.5 0.065 0.327 0.723
Hand function 0.8 ± 1.9 2.9 ± 5.8 2.1 ± 5.8 0.180 2.9 ± 6.2 2.1 ± 6.6 0.285 5.4 ± 8.6 6.3 ± 12.1 0.8 ± 8.5 0.891 8.3 ± 13.7 2.9 ± 12.1 0.357 0.086 0.858
Mobility 50.7 ± 26.0 53.6 ± 20.0 2.9 ± 15.9 0.386 58.5 ± 18.1 7.8 ± 16.5 0.103 69.9 ± 28.9 68.0 ± 30.3 − 1.9 ± 7.9 0.675 73.7 ± 29.1 3.8 ± 7.0 0.046 1.844 0.171
ADLs/IADLs 59.2 ± 15.6 61.7 ± 14.7 2.5 ± 13.6 0.789 62.9 ± 12.6 3.8 ± 12.5 0.307 64.5 ± 15.5 62.5 ± 15.1 − 2.0 ± 6.1 0.259 70.8 ± 16.3 2.5 ± 6.1 0.085 0.667 0.519
Memory and thinking 70.2 ± 20.8 80.1 ± 15.4 9.9 ± 16.1 0.052 76.7 ± 16.9 6.5 ± 16.9 0.258 86.3 ± 10.0 85.5 ± 13.5 − 0.8 ± 7.3 0.865 88.8 ± 11.2 6.3 ± 10.1 0.172 4.484 0.017
Communication 83.8 ± 20.1 90.4 ± 16.8 6.6 ± 18.8 0.123 89.9 ± 19.1 6.1 ± 18.9 0.123 95.2 ± 5.5 90.7 ± 10.4 −4.5 ± 6.2 0.034 92.8 ± 9.5 −2.3 ± 5.4 0.167 4.009 0.051
Emotion 65.1 ± 17.9 70.8 ± 15.1 5.7 ± 15.5 0.182 70.8 ± 18.6 5.7 ± 12.5 0.212 80.5 ± 13.7 79.0 ± 15.8 −1.5 ± 5.5 0.475 80.1 ± 15.3 − 0.4 ± 8.9 0.959 1.901 0.163
Social participation 36.2 ± 20.6 42.8 ± 23.2 6.6 ± 10.1 0.050 41.3 ± 22.5 5.2 ± 9.9 0.096 39.3 ± 12.3 41.5 ± 15.7 2.2 ± 14.5 0.574 41.7 ± 11.1 2.3 ± 9.5 0.444 0.144 0.867
Recovery 31.7 ± 13.5 43.3 ± 13.9 11.7 ± 13.2 0.004 45.0 ± 13.7 13.3 ± 13.9 0.004 47.5 ± 17.1 49.6 ± 15.3 2.1 ± 8.1 0.493 57.5 ± 17.0 10.0 ± 10.2 0.011 2.673 0.081
Overall 388.2 ± 93.4 431.6 ± 58.4 43.4 ± 56.1 0.033 430.3 ± 70.8 42.2 ± 60.5 0.041 460.8 ± 72.0 461.7 ± 85.3 0.8 ± 24.3 0.824 483.3 ± 89.4 22.4 ± 30.2 0.018 3.559 0.038
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The RM ANCOVA covariates were the time from stroke and FMA baseline data
  2. SIS Stroke impact scale, ANCOVA Analysis of covariance, SB Smart Board intervention, CON Conventional intervention, ADLs/IADLs Activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living