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Table 2 Approved open and closed loop stimulation devices for the treatment of epilepsy and reported efficacy

From: Neural stimulation systems for the control of refractory epilepsy: a review

Data Vagus nerve stimulation Vagus nerve stimulation Thalamic stimulation Responsive focus stimulation
Stimulation site Left vagus nerve (neck) Left vagus nerve (neck) Anterior nuclei of the thalamus (bilaterally) Epileptic focus (cortex)
Stimulator placement Subcutaneous, left pectoral/sub clavicular Subcutaneous, left pectoral/sub clavicular Subcutaneous, abdominal Within the skull
Stimulation mode Open-loop
5 m off 30s on
Closed-loop based on detection of tachycardia Open-loop 5 m on 1 m off Closed-loop based on detection of ictal EEG patterns
Seizure reduction b30.43% at 12 months
62.68% at 6 years [73]
a66% at 13 months [106] c41% at year 1
69% at year 5 [81]
60% year 3
66% year 6 [87]
Responder rate b49% at time of last follow up a59% at 13 months [106] c43% at year 1
68% at year 5 [81]
58% year 3
59% year 6 [87]
Effectiveness of detection/prediction algorithm None used No results have been given None used No results have been given
  1. aValues are reported as mean values of the total new implant cohort
  2. bMean length of treatment time was 4.10 years with a maximum treatment time of 12 years
  3. cValues reported are median values of 110 patients