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Table 1 Characterization of impairments and activity limitations

From: Technology-aided assessment of functionally relevant sensorimotor impairments in arm and hand of post-stroke individuals

  Percentage of subjects with disability
  Most affected side Less affected side
  n = 20 n = 22
Conventional scales: impairments
FMA-UE 100.0% 50.0%
MAS 75.0% 9.1%
EmNSA 70.0% 18.2%
Conventional scales: activity
BBT 90.0% 54.5%
ARAT 70.0% 4.5%
NHPT 70.0% 9.1%
VPIT: impairments in activity context
Log jerk transport 45.0% 8.2%
Log jerk return 35.0% 9.1%
SPARC return 30.0% 9.1%
Path length ratio transport 45.0% 4.5%
Path length ratio return 35.0% 13.6%
Velocity max. return 50.0% 31.8%
Jerk peg approach 30.0% 0.0%
Grip force rate num. peaks transport 50.0% 22.7%
Grip force rate SPARC transport 10.0% 9.1%
Grip force rate SPARC hole approach 45.0% 4.5%
  1. MAS: Modified Ashworth Scale; NHPT: Nine Hole Peg Test; EmNSA: Erasmus modifications to the Nottingham Sensory Assessment; BBT: Box and Block Test; ARAT: Action Research Arm Test; FMA-UE: Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity.
  2. Conventional assessments and the VPIT were used to define the presence of sensorimotor impairments and activity limitations. For the VPIT, NHPT, and BBT, abnormal behavior was defined if task performance was outside the 95th-percentile of a normative reference population. According to the ARAT, activity limitations were present if the score was below 55 [13]. All other conventional scales indicated the presence of impairments if the full score was not reached. Only participants with all conventional scales available were used. In total, 90% and 50% of all individuals showed impairment in at least one VPIT metric with the most affected and less affected side, respectively