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Table 2 Longitudinal changes of cortical features of left M1 and DLPFC

From: Dynamic changes of region-specific cortical features and scalp-to-cortex distance: implications for transcranial current stimulation modeling

Morphometric measures NA adults (n = 32) MCI converters (n = 22) t value p value
Left M1
 GMV (×103 mm3)
  Baseline 19.55 ± 2.58 18.37 ± 3.03 1.47 0.148
  1st year FU 19.39 ± 2.35 18.67 ± 2.86 0.96 0.341
  3rd year FU 19.24 ± 2.65 18.63 ± 3.49 0.71 0.487
 WMV (×103 mm3)
  Baseline 7.01 ± 2.02 6.27 ± 1.44 1.41 0.168
  1st year FU 7.26 ± 1.98 6.39 ± 1.41 1.67 0.101
  3rd year FU 6.91 ± 1.54 6.82 ± 1.71 0.17 0.861
 Cortical thickness (mm)
  Baseline 4.14 ± 0.42 4.25 ± 0.55 − 0.841 0.405
  1st year FU 4.09 ± 0.43 4.07 ± 0.43 0.171 0.865
  3rd year FU 4.14 ± 0.51 4.06 ± 0.34 0.588 0.559
 Gyrification Index (GI)
  Baseline 1.53 ± 0.26 1.72 ± 0.38 − 2.09 0.068
  1st year FU 1.48 ± 0.29 1.73 ± 0.51 − 2.26 0.029
  3rd year FU 1.55 ± 0.35 1.46 ± 0.21 1.17 0.248
Left DLPFC
 GMV (×103 mm3)
  Baseline 20.23 ± 4.01 17.89 ± 3.35 2.215 0.032
  1st year FU 19.62 ± 3.14 18.24 ± 3.79 1.391 0.171
  3rd year FU 19.54 ± 3.57 18.17 ± 4.27 1.218 0.229
 WMV (×103 mm3)
  Baseline 5.48 ± 1.58 4.62 ± 1.05 2.325 0.024
  1st year FU 5.45 ± 1.65 4.76 ± 1.18 1.604 0.115
  3rd year FU 5.25 ± 1.35 4.94 ± 1.49 0.764 0.449
 Cortical thickness (mm)
  Baseline 5.02 ± 0.52 4.98 ± 0.72 0.236 0.815
  1st year FU 5.05 ± 0.61 4.97 ± 0.41 0.357 0.722
  3rd year FU 4.97 ± 0.41 4.85 ± 0.63 0.818 0.417
 Gyrification Index (GI)
  Baseline 2.05 ± 0.38 2.16 ± 0.32 − 1.01 0.386
  1st year FU 2.06 ± 0.41 2.16 ± 0.36 − 0.91 0.258
  3rd year FU 2.06 ± 0.32 2.04 ± 0.25 0.32 0.737
  1. Data are raw scores and presented as mean ± SD
  2. FU follow-up, M1 primary motor area, DLPFC dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, GMV grey matter volume, WMV white matter volume