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Fig. 1 | Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation

Fig. 1

From: Neurophysiological validation of simultaneous intrinsic and reflexive joint impedance estimates

Fig. 1

Experimental setup overview. Participants were seated on an adjustable chair with their right foot connected to an actuator, applying perturbations around the ankle joint. Feedback was given using a (blue) 2D trace on both torque (y-axis) and an impedance parameter (x-axis). On the y-axis, a (red) torque target was shown around either 0 or −5 Nm. On the x-axis, (black-dashed) reference lines were shown with the average magnitude of the impedance parameter from previously completed 60 s hold periods at each torque level. In the specific example situation depicted, a participant would have had the following two tasks: (1) (y-axis) keep voluntary torque stable within the target boundaries around −5 Nm; and (2) (x-axis) keep the impedance parameter stable and away from the black-dashed reference lines shown

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