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Fig. 5 | Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation

Fig. 5

From: Neurophysiological validation of simultaneous intrinsic and reflexive joint impedance estimates

Fig. 5

Ensemble averages (±SD) of hold periods with modulated impedance, typical examples for a single representative participant. Ensemble averages of the measured signals, created by aligning all step perturbations at perturbation onset (grey-dashed vertical lines). %VAF was computed using the measured and modeled torque ensemble of both step and pulse perturbations. The K (Nm/rad) and G (Nm/rad/s) parameter values provided represent the mean value across each hold period. All torque ensembles were normalized by subtracting the average background torque to enhance visualization of intrinsic and reflexive torque effects. All three hold periods were executed at a 0 Nm torque target

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