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Table 2 Outcome measures of clinical scores at baseline (Pre) present in mean ± SD, and within-group differences after gait training (Post–Pre) present in mean difference (95%CI)

From: Effects of wearable ankle robotics for stair and over-ground training on sub-acute stroke: a randomized controlled trial

  PAAR (n = 14) SCAR(n = 16) CT (n = 17)
FAC (max. 5)    
 Pre 1.9 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 0.8 2.2 ± 1.0
 Post–pre  + 1.4 (+ 1.0, + 1.9)***  + 1.4 (+ 0.9, + 2.0)***  + 0.9 (+ 0.4, + 1.3)**
 % Independent walker (FAC ≥ 4) 57.1% 56.3% 29.4%
BBS (max. 56)    
 Pre 24.0 ± 11.3 30.7 ± 14.6 25.9 ± 14.4
 Post–pre  + 18.8 (+ 13.1, + 24.4)***  + 12.6 (+ 6.2, + 18.9)**  + 14.4 (+ 9.4, + 19.3)***
 % Post–pre > MCID 71.4% 50.0% 47.1%
10MWT (m/s)    
 Pre 0.13 ± 0.16 0.14 ± 0.16 0.14 ± 0.18
 Post–pre  + 0.32 (+ 0.18, + 0.46)***  + 0.17 (+ 0.09, + 0.25)**  + 0.17 (+ 0.06, + 0.29)**
 % Post–pre > MCID 71.4% 56.3% 41.2%
Stair active training time (s)a    
 Baseline 464 ± 100 238 ± 67  
 10th-session 476 ± 97 401 ± 145*  
 20th-session 480 ± 121 427 ± 154*  
Number of stairs covered (step)    
 Baseline 72 ± 18 40 ± 26  
 10th-session 115 ± 36** 83 ± 49  
 20th-session 154 ± 85** 95 ± 40*  
Walk active training time (s)    
Baseline 874 ± 212 806 ± 173  
 10th-session 1010 ± 138* 1044 ± 162**  
 20th-session 1072 ± 171** 1070 ± 148***  
Walking distance covered (m)    
 Baseline 118.8 ± 70.5 64.3 ± 31.9  
 10th-session 225.7 ± 161.9*** 168.7 ± 90.7***  
 20th-session 362.5 ± 189.1*** 212.0 ± 100.7***  
Assistive torque level (Nm)    
 Baseline 3.6 ± 0.8   
 10th-session 3.6 ± 0.7   
 20th-session 3.5 ± 0.6   
  1. For robot-assisted training, the assistive torque level, and the training intensity in terms of active training time and stairs/distance covered at three time points (baseline, 10th-, and 20th-session) present in mean ± SD
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, significant within-group difference
  3. Active training time = assigned training (600 s for stair, 1200 s for walk) minus resting time