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Table 1 Comparisons of subjective ratings between the treadmill conditions in the study with healthy participants

From: Immersive virtual reality during gait rehabilitation increases walking speed and motivation: a usability evaluation with healthy participants and patients with multiple sclerosis and stroke

Measure Subscale No VRa Semi-immersive VRa (monitor) Immersive VRa (HMD) p Cohen’s d t F
Moodb   7.00 (1.66) 7.61 (1.25) 8.39 (1.15)  < .001*    21.38
Motivationb   6.89 (2.29) 7.28 (1.78) 8.42 (1.38)  < .001*    11.98
IMI Interest/Enjoyment   4.63 (1.15) 5.78 (0.96)  < .001* 1.29 − 7.73  
  Perceived Competence   4.81 (0.85) 5.18 (0.78) .002* 0.42 − 3.42  
  Effort/ Importance   3.89 (1.29) 4.24 (1.20) .041* 0.36 − 2.12  
  Pressure/ Tension   2.01 (0.69) 1.84 (0.84) .113 0.27 1.63  
Sense of timec   4.25 (2.38) 6.64 (1.57) 7.89 (1.33)  < .001 (GG− corrected)*    52.15
VR-questionsd “The virtual environment was motivating for me”   7.5 (1.65) 8.53 (1.36)  < .001* 0.78 − 4.67  
  “I felt present in the virtual environment”   5.72 (1.95) 8.06 (1.37)  < .001* 1.10 − 6.59  
  “I paid attention to my natural gait during the treadmill training”   5.64 (2.38) 5.28 (2.17) .344 0.16 0.96  
IPQ Spatial Presence   − 0.58 (0.88) 1.11 (0.53)  < .001* 2.00 − 12.01  
  Involvement   − 0.39 (0.78) 0.78 (0.56)  < .001* 1.43 − 8.58  
  Experienced Realism   − 1.31 (0.78) − 0.24 (1.71)  < .001* 1.06 − 6.33  
  General   − 1.00 (1.71) 1.47 (1.21)  < .001* 1.37 − 8.26  
SSQ Nausea   10.34 (11.49) 15.37 (11.47) .014* 0.43 − 2.57  
  Oculomotor   12.63 (14.61) 12.84 (19.58) .895 0.02 − .13  
  Disorientation   10.83 (17.00) 17.40 (26.07) .061 0.32 − 1.94  
  Total   13.19 (13.34) 17.04 (18.46) .068 0.31 − 1.88  
RTLX Mental Demand 3.19 (4.95) 7.78 (7.79) 12.08 (11.17)  < .001*    15.75
  Physical Demand 10.69 (9.80) 13.61 (12.91) 15.00 (14.19) .041*    3.35
  Temporal Demand 6.53 (7.82) 10.83 (14.12) 9.44 (15.30) .156    1.91
  Effort 17.36 (23.89) 15.14 (21.40) 15.69 (26.68) .752    .29
  Performance 9.72 (9.02) 13.19 (13.48) 12.50 (14.47) .080    2.63
  Frustration 6.67 (8.62) 6.11 (9.42) 3.19 (7.09) .083    2.58
Borg Scale   8.47 (1.63) 9.08 (1.81) 8.92 (2.17) .207    1.61
SUS Total   83.68 (9.36) 83.75 (10.03) .965  < 0.01 − .05  
  1. IMI Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, IPQ Igroup Presence Questionnaire, RTLX Raw NASA-Task Load Index, Raw National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index, SSQ Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, SUS System Usability Scale
  2. aMean (SD)
  3. bRange 0 (“Very bad”)—10 (“Very good”)
  4. cRange 0 (“Very slow”)—10 (“Very fast”)
  5. dRange 0 (“Fully disagree”)—10 (“Fully agree”)
  6. *Significant p-values (p < .05) of main effects are marked with asterisks