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Table 3 Descriptive and inferential statistics of outcome measures

From: Augmented efficacy of intermittent theta burst stimulation on the virtual reality-based cycling training for upper limb function in patients with stroke: a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial

Variables sham iTBS + VCT (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests) iTBS + VCT (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests) M–W U tests
Pre-Tx Post-Tx p Pre-Tx Post-Tx p p
Mean ± SD 95% CI Mean ± SD 95% CI Mean ± SD 95% CI Mean ± SD 95% CI
FMA-UE 34.55 ± 18.34 23.05–46.05 40.64 ± 16.83 30.08–51.19 0.003 43.58 ± 15.35 34.36–52.80 47.17 ± 16.30 37.38–56.96 0.021* 0.174
MAS-UE 0.94 ± 0.69 0.51–1.38 0.97 ± 0.63 0.57–1.36 0.336 0.87 ± 0.54 0.54–1.19 0.65 ± 0.50 0.34–0.95 0.004 0.007
ARAT 17.09 ± 18.11 5.73–28.45 18.27 ± 18.91 6.42–30.13 0.027* 25.75 ± 22.69 12.13–39.37 30.42 ± 22.38 16.98–43.85 0.025* 0.225
GM 4.73 ± 1.68 3.67–5.78 5.36 ± 1.80 4.23–6.50 0.010* 5.33 ± 2.87 3.61–7.06 6.50 ± 2.88 4.77–8.23 0.006 0.158
Grasp 5.55 ± 6.65 1.37–9.72 5.27 ± 6.77 1.03–9.52 0.090 8.75 ± 8.01 3.94–13.56 9.50 ± 7.74 4.85–14.15 0.207 0.190
Grip 3.00 ± 4.31 0.30–5.70 3.55 ± 4.55 0.69–6.40 0.090 5.42 ± 5.16 2.32–8.52 6.83 ± 5.38 3.61–10.06 0.390 0.326
Pinch 3.82 ± 6.31 -0.14–7.77 4.09 ± 6.33 0.12–8.06 0.159 6.25 ± 7.40 1.81–10.69 7.58 ± 7.56 3.04–12.12 0.055 0.263
BBT 11.40 ± 16.02 1.20–21.60 11.88 ± 13.74 3.00–20.40 0.393 18.72 ± 18.84 7.20–30.00 21.96 ± 19.50 10.20–33.60 0.029* 0.130
NHPTa 4.02 ± 8.82 -1.20–9.60 4.56 ± 7.92 -0.60–9.60 0.208 7.86 ± 11.88 0.60–15.00 11.40 ± 13.86 3.00–19.80 0.023* 0.106
MAL (AOU) 42.64 ± 31.04 23.17–62.10 36.55 ± 22.06 22.71–50.38 0.118 33.92 ± 42.40 8.46–59.37 42.25 ± 43.93 15.87–68.63 0.009 0.006
MAL (QOM) 46.55 ± 40.89 20.90–72.19 42.82 ± 32.96 22.15–63.49 0.337 35.17 ± 42.58 9.60–60.73 42.83 ± 43.39 16.78–68.88 0.009 0.076
SIS 57.09 ± 8.61 51.69–62.49 58.04 ± 6.47 53.99–62.10 0.066 58.06 ± 12.79 50.38–65.73 65.02 ± 13.50 56.91–73.12 0.001 0.005
  1. T-distribution was used to compute a 95% CI. Degrees of freedom = 22
  2. SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, M–W U tests Mann–Whitney U tests, iTBS intermittent theta burst stimulation, VCT virtual reality-based cycling training, MAS-UE Modified Ashworth Scale-Upper Extremity, FMA-UE Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity, ARAT Action Research Arm Test, GM gross movement, BBT Box and Block Test, NHPT Nine Hole Peg Test, MAL(AOU) Motor Activity Log (Amount of Use), MAL (QOM) Motor Activity Log (Quality of Movement), SIS Stroke Impact Scale
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. p < 0.01
  5. aThe unit of NHPT is number of pegs/minute