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Table 2 Sensor details

From: How wearable sensors have been utilised to evaluate frailty in older adults: a systematic review

Author (Reference n.) Sensor type,Location and properties where provided Acquisition, processing and analysis
Martinez-Ramirez [45] MTx XSENS,Xsens Technologies B.V. Enschede, Netherlands
Tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope & magnetometer worn at L 3 combines nine individual MEMS sensors to provide drift-free 3D orientation as well as kinematic data: 3D acceleration, 3D (rate gyro) and 3D magnetometers
A wavelet-based algorithm using Fourier Technique, Wavelet Decomposition, Principal Component Analysis
Theou [24] ActiTrainer Uni-axial accelerometer worn on waist Records data in 1-min epochs
Polar WearLink HR monitor worn on chest,
Garmin forerunner405 GPS worn on wrist
Biometrics DataLOG P3X8 EMG worn on Vastus Lateralis and Biceps Brachii
Data downloaded or wirelessly transmitted to Custom Software
EMG sampling frequency 1000 Hz
Millor [46] MTx XSENSXsens Technologies B.V. Enschede, Netherlands
Tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope & magnetometer worn at L3
Sampling frequency 100 Hz, Automated raw data analysis using Matlab (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA., USA)
Galan-Mercant [47, 51] iPhone4 secured to chest
Tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope & magnetometer
Apple uses a LIS302DL accelerometer in iPhone4
Sampling frequency 32 Hz. Data obtained through the use of an Application xSensor Pro, Crossbow Technology Inc., available from Apple AppStore
Greene [50] SHIMMER, Dublin, Ireland
Tri-axial accelerometer & gyroscope worn on each shin
Sensor axes aligned with the vertical, medio-lateral and anterior–posterior axes of the body,
Sampling frequency 102.4 Hz, Low-pass filtered with zero-phase 2nd order Butterworth filter, 20 Hz corner frequency. Raw data analysis using Matlab (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA., USA)
Greene [49] SHIMMER, Dublin, Ireland
Tri-axial accelerometer & gyroscope worn on each shin, lateral aspect of right thigh, Sternum above L5
Inertial sensor Sampling frequency 102.4 Hz, 2nd order Butterworth filter. Pressure sensor 40 Hz. Raw data analysis using Matlab (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA., USA)
Chen [44] Active Style Pro, HJA350-IT, Omron Healthcare, Co. Ltd, Kyoto, Japan)
Tri-axial accelerometer. Location not specified
Details not provided
Schwenk [38] LEGSys™, BalanSens™, PAMSys™ Locomotion Evaluation and Gait System, (BioSensics, Cambridge, MA)
Tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer sensors worn on shanks, thighs, and L
Sampling frequency 100 Hz Custom software LEGSys™, BalanSens™,
Martinez-Ramirez [56] MTx XSENS,Xsens Technologies B.V. Enschede, Netherlands
Tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope & magnetometer worn at L3
Gait features were detected using automatic peak detection and identified using wavelet decomposition (Coif5 level 3)
Toosizadeh [57] BalanSens ™ BioSensics (LLC, Brookline, Mass., USA)
Triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer worn at shank and trunk
Sampling frequency 100 Hz Real time quaternions were converted to Eular angles
Toosizadeh [39] BioSensics LLC
Tri-axial gyroscope worn on Upper Arm near Biceps muscle and wrist
Sampling frequency 100 Hz Further details of sensor-data extraction not provided
Jansen [11] ActiGraph GT3X + (ActiGraph, Pensacola, Florida) and BT-Q1000XT (QStarz International Co)
Tri-axial accelerometer and GPS receiver worn on waist
ActiLife v5.8.3 Firmware v2.2.0, was used to process accelerometer data
Toosizadeh [53] BioSensics LLC
Tri-axial gyroscope worn on Upper Arm near Biceps muscle and wrist
Sampling frequency 100 Hz Further details of sensor-data extraction not provided
Millor [58] MTx Orientation Tracker (WSENS, Xsens Technologies B.V., Enschede, Netherlands)
Tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope & magnetometer worn at LSp3
Sampling frequency 100 Hz. Nine individual MEMS sensors provided kinematic data. Drift-free orientation data was also provided using Kalman filters. Automated data analysis using Matlab (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA., USA)
Parvanneh [40] PAMSys TM (BioSensics LLC, Watertown, MA, USA),
Tri-axial accelerometer worn at Sternum
Sampling frequency 50 Hz. Custom software / algorithm (PAMWare, BioSensics Cambridge, MA, USA)
Huisingh-Scheetz [35] ActiWatch Spectrum
Tri-axial piezo-electric accelerometer worn on wrist
Sampling frequency 32 Hz. Data processed using Actiware® software
Lee [52] LEGSys™(Biosensics LLC, Watertown, MA)
Tri-axial gyroscope worn on wrist and Upper arm
Sampling frequency 100 Hz, Automated raw data analysis using Matlab (Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA., USA). An algorithm was developed using zero crossing technique, with no filtering, to automate phenotype extraction
Razjouyan [41] PAMSys™ (BioSensics LLC, Watertown, MA, USA)
Tri-axial accelerometer worn at sternum
Sampling frequency 50 Hz. The raw data were processed with a band-pass filter at cut-off frequencies of 0.1953 Hz and 12.5 Hz
Castaneda-Gameros [17] Actigraph GT3X accelerometer (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL) worn on Hip. Programmed to record activity in 60-s epochs Data were cleaned and scored using ActiLife software V6.2
Jansen [43] LEGSys™ (BioSensics, Cambridge, Mass., USA)
Tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer worn on shanks, thighs, and L
Algorithm based on accelerometer data with low-pass filtering (as described in author’s earlier publication)
Zhou [54] LEGSysTM (BioSensics, MA, USA)
Tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer worn on both shins
Quaternion components of ankle rotation were converted to Eular angles. Sampling frequency 100 Hz
Mulasso [42] ADAMO System (Caretek S.r.l., Turin, Italy)
Tri-axial accelerometer worn on wrist
Embedded step-count algorithm. Sampling frequency 50 Hz
Lepetit [48] APDM (Opal, Portland, USA)
Tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer worn on chest
Fusion algorithm. Sampling frequency 128 Hz
Yuki [37] Lifecorder (Suzuken, Aichi, Japan)
Uniaxial accelerometer. Body-location not specified
Data recorded in 4-s epochs. No further information available
Ziller [34] ActiGraph wGT3x-BT
Tri-axial accelerometer worn at hip
Sampling frequency 100 Hz, 10-s epochs. Data processing using ActiLife Software 6, ActiGraph, LLC
Chen [55] Active style Pro HJA- 350IT, Omron Healthcare, Kyoto, Japan
Triaxial accelerometer worn at the waist
Data recorded in 60-s epochs. No further detail available
Kikuchi [36] Active style Pro HJA-750C; Omron Healthcare, Kyoto, Japan
Triaxial accelerometer worn at the hip
Data recorded in 60-s epochs. Analysis using application developed by Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd to read METs data from accelerometer
Apsega [33] SHIMMER, Dublin, Ireland
Tri-axial accelerometer & gyroscope worn on each thigh, shin and dorsum of foot
Sampling frequency 256 Hz. Butterworth second order low pass filter with an 8 Hz cut-off and an additional least square method 25th order filter with a 10 Hz cut-off for composite foot acceleration data. A gait event detection algorithm was developed