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Table 2 Exercises included in the traditional and in the robotic rehabilitative training. In the experimental group, exercises in the “Traditional training” column have been replaced with those in the corresponding row of the “Robotic training” column

From: Efficacy of wrist robot-aided orthopedic rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial

Traditional training Robotic training
Headline Description Duration (min) Headline Description Duration (min)
Passive mobilization Subsequent series of movements along different directions, supported by the physiotherapist 15 Passive mobilization Subsequent series of passive mobilizations, performed applying constant forces to move the hand across the 3-DoFs space 15
Active and assisted mobilization Subsequent series of movements along different directions, initially assisted by the physiotherapist 15 Active and assisted mobilization Subsequent series tracing movements along linear trajectories, with a robotic assistance proportional to the distance from the final point 15
Exercise with elastic bands or weights Subsequent series of contraction along different movement planes, using an elastic band or with gradually increasing weights 20 Reaching with elastic resistance Subsequent series of reaching across the FE-RUD space, in presence of constant or distance-dependent resistive forces 20
Exercise of manipulation and dexterity Simulation of daily life activities, supervised by the physiotherapist 40 Tracking 3-DoFs tracking of a moving target in a viscous field 40