# Table 2 Perturbation characteristics

I1 I2 I3 ANOVA Posthoc
Peak Δ v (ms−1) 0.53 ± 0.01 0.80 ± 0.01 1.03 ± 0.01 < 0.001 All
Peak Δ vrel (%) 74.49 ± 31.32 111.60 ± 47.31 144.15 ± 60.99 < 0.001 All
Peak Δ a (ms−2) 18.08 ± 1.01 18.41 ± 1.37 18.34 ± 1.30 0.505 All
Time to peak v (ms) 72.67 ± 11.04 92.81 ± 15.32 103.75 ± 15.34 < 0.001 All
Time to peak vrel (%) 10.32 ± 0.75 13.24 ± 0.88 15.56 ± 1.04 < 0.001 All
Duration (ms) 143.71 ± 22.07 181.27 ± 29.40 206.69 ± 30.60 < 0.001 All
Duration rel (%) 20.37 ± 1.44 25.93 ± 1.78 30.95 ± 2.03 < 0.001 All
Start (ms) 95.81 ± 51.93 80.34 ± 18.40 77.92 ± 18.63 0.063
Start rel (%) 11.64 ± 2.35 11.88 ± 2.72 11.94 ± 2.58 0.877
Start rel TD (%) 12.02 ± 1.48 12.11 ± 1.57 11.88 ± 1.53 0.661
Start rel CP (%) 11.38 ± 3.61 11.73 ± 3.98 11.99 ± 3.32 0.626
Peak Δ Ankle angle (°) 1.99 ± 0.69 3.60 ± 0.94 4.89 ± 1.49 < 0.001 All
Peak Δ Ankle ω (°s−1) 45.65 ± 14.65 62.21 ± 16.61 77.83 ± 24.00 < 0.001 All
1. Spatiotemporal parameters (Time to peak v, perturbation duration and perturbation start) are expressed in absolute values as well as relative to the gait cycle (rel). Mean ± standard deviations are presented. Δ v = difference in treadmill velocity, Δvrel = difference in treadmill velocity relative to participant’s belt velocity, a = treadmill acceleration, ω = angular velocity. Significant values are expressed in bold. All posthoc testing revealed significant differences between all conditions (p < 0.05)