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Table 4 Statistical outcomes for the construct validity evaluation

From: Functional assessment of stretch hyperreflexia in children with cerebral palsy using treadmill perturbations

Parameters TD CP Ppert Pintensity Pgroup Pinter
Max Δangle (°)
 Ankle 5.40 ± 1.34 3.79 ± 1.40 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.028 0.002
 Knee 4.41 ± 1.64 4.50 ± 1.90 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.153 0.430
Max ΔMTL (norm.)
 GM 2.99 ± 0.52 2.15 ± 1.05 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.006 0.038
 SO 3.60 ± 0.89 2.42 ± 1.02 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.016 0.001
 TA − 3.56 ± 0.81 − 2.49 ± 1.05 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.028 0.002
Max ΔMTV (norm.)
 GM 25.04 ± 4.04 23.05 ± 5.57 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.682 0.178
 SO 37.51 ± 7.40 29.76 ± 9.78 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.057 0.011
 TA − 35.14 ± 5.36 − 28.72 ± 8.53 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.085 0.006
Max ΔEMG (%)
 GM 230.92 ± 67.91 359.53 ± 189.63 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.018 0.051
 SO 285.10 ± 160.90 282.69 ± 149.86 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.540 0.537
 TA 106.47 ± 39.83 189.88 ± 204.63 0.003 0.001 0.131 0.126
CCI difference
 GM − 0.09 ± 0.06 0.01 ± 0.06 < 0.001 0.069 0.001 0.076
 SO − 0.07 ± 0.05 − 0.01 ± 0.05 < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001 0.742
Muscular response strength (norm.)
 GM 9.95 ± 3.74 16.96 ± 8.81 0.658 0.501 0.064 0.045
 SO 8.52 ± 5.65 11.10 ± 5.05 0.521 0.237 0.005 0.351
Muscular response duration (ms)
 GM 102.95 ± 7.47 124.57 ± 15.39 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.001
 SO 93.88 ± 8.65 114.07 ± 16.70 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.004 0.001
  1. Values for the highest intensity are presented for all construct validity parameters. Values for unperturbed and the three intensities are presented in Additional file 1: Table S1. Abbreviations: with TD the typically developing group, CP the cerebral palsy group, Ppert the effect of perturbations (Helmert contrast), Pintensity the effect of intensities (linear polynomial contrast), Pgroup the difference between CP and TD, Pinter the interaction between CP and TD, MTL musculo-tendon length, GM gastrocnemius medialis muscle, SO soleus muscle, TA tibialis anterior muscle, MTV musculo-tendon stretch velocity, CCI diff difference in co-contraction index between unperturbed and highest intensity perturbations. Mean ± standard deviations are presented. Significant p-values are expressed in bold