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Table 4 Mean ± Standard deviation for the magnitude and dissimilarity, between drawing on the tablet and the joint movements.

From: Proximal and distal movement patterns during a graphomotor task in typically developing children and children with handwriting problems

Group Copy Trace
Upper back Shoulder Elbow Wrist Fingers Upper back Shoulder Elbow Wrist Fingers
Magnitude-horizontal
 Control 0.158 ± 0.163 0.226 ± 0.213 0.354 ± 0.273 0.516 ± 2.289 1.014 ± 0.606 0.146 ± 0.133 0.210 ± 0.147 0.473 ± 0.263 0.711 ± 0.287 1.148 ± 0.296
 Research 0.097 ± 0.071 0.154 ± 0.118 0.321 ± 0.207 0.544 ± 0.431 1.035 ± 1.413 0.175 ± 0.224 0.210 ± 0.265 0.416 ± 0.291 0.733 ± 0.513 0.987 ± 0.321
Magnitude-vertical
  Control 0.133 ± 0.193 0.164 ± 0.140 0.358 ± 0.287 0.432 ± 0.173 0.806 ± 0.472 0.099 ± 0.079 0.144 ± 0.094 0.445 ± 0.304 0.704 ± 0.319 0.945 ± 0.313
  Research 0.070 ± 0.070 0.085 ± 0.064 0.306 ± 0.157 0.421 ± 0.177 0.668 ± 0.183 0.068 ± 0.056 0.100 ± 0.075 0.369 ± 0.253 0.734 ± 0.359 1.049 ± 0.322
Dissimilarity (mm)–horizontal
  Control 22.1 ± 11.0 19.9 ± 7.7 15.2 ± 7.7 9.7 ± 3.7 7.4 ± 1.7 23.0 ± 11.7 16.8 ± 5.7 14.0 ± 4.8 9.2 ± 3.8 6.5 ± 2.2
  Research 30.2 ± 26.7 31.0 ± 16.5 16.3 ± 7.2 11.0 ± 4.0 8.6 ± 1.8 24.4 ± 13.0 30.4 ± 15.4 18.0 ± 9.1 12.6 ± 7.8 7.6 ± 3.3
Dissimilarity (mm)–vertical
  Control 27.2 ± 16.7 22.3 ± 8.7 14.2 ± 3.9 11.8 ± 4.4 7.9 ± 2.0 27.4 ± 141 26.5 ± 13.0 16.1 ± 8.5 11.0 ± 5.4 6.5 ± 2.1
  Research 41.3 ± 24.8 36.1 ± 23.1 15.0 ± 5.0 12.8 ± 7.7 9.0 ± 4.2 43.7 ± 47.4 30.2 ± 18.7 16.5 ± 10.9 10.2 ± 6.4 6.9 ± 2.6
  1. The values are averaged over the three shapes