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Table 2 Calibration results with three HNM categories in both single-speed modes and inter-speed mode on each participant

From: Fused ultrasound and electromyography-driven neuromuscular model to improve plantarflexion moment prediction across walking speeds

Subject HNMs Single-speed modes
   0.50 m/s 0.75 m/s 1.00 m/s
   RMSE \(R^{2}\) RMSE \(R^{2}\) RMSE \(R^{2}\)
Sub01 sEMG 12.16 0.954 11.28 0.956 12.75 0.954
US imaging 14.49 0.921 14.62 0.926 12.94 0.951
sEMG-US imaging 11.79 0.965 10.25 0.964 11.77 0.960
Sub02 sEMG 5.96 0.932 6.93 0.936 7.70 0.934
US imaging 5.91 0.932 6.44 0.943 7.07 0.945
sEMG-US imaging 4.94 0.953 5.10 0.964 6.91 0.947
Sub03 sEMG 9.86 0.924 8.38 0.964 11.28 0.949
US imaging 13.68 0.857 11.17 0.937 12.29 0.940
sEMG-US imaging 8.33 0.946 6.49 0.979 9.81 0.962
Sub04 sEMG 12.04 0.820 17.14 0.842 13.79 0.904
US imaging 16.60 0.661 20.49 0.771 16.38 0.865
sEMG-US imaging 11.64 0.834 16.89 0.847 13.48 0.908
Sub05 sEMG 8.70 0.903 9.43 0.904 9.01 0.921
US imaging 9.10 0.894 9.77 0.897 9.54 0.911
sEMG-US imaging 7.90 0.920 8.96 0.913 8.97 0.921
Sub06 sEMG 6.36 0.963 6.15 0.974 9.35 0.953
US imaging 7.08 0.954 12.42 0.897 18.34 0.823
sEMG-US imaging 5.53 0.972 6.02 0.976 9.28 0.954
Sub07 sEMG 5.76 0.923 6.75 0.921 6.84 0.949
US imaging 6.22 0.911 8.34 0.879 7.31 0.942
sEMG-US imaging 5.46 0.932 6.48 0.927 6.67 0.951
Sub08 sEMG 4.98 0.973 6.64 0.957 9.20 0.936
US imaging 4.97 0.973 6.97 0.953 8.34 0.946
sEMG-US imaging 4.61 0.977 6.35 0.961 8.24 0.948
Sub09 sEMG 7.37 0.926 8.65 0.919 7.76 0.941
US imaging 8.99 0.894 9.55 0.901 8.13 0.936
sEMG-US imaging 7.22 0.929 8.27 0.926 7.24 0.949
Sub10 sEMG 9.31 0.935 7.27 0.973 12.24 0.940
US imaging 13.85 0.856 11.97 0.927 12.56 0.937
sEMG-US imaging 8.25 0.949 5.78 0.983 9.72 0.962
Subject HNMs Single-speed modes Inter-speed mode
   1.25 m/s 1.50 m/s All speeds
   RMSE \(R^{2}\) RMSE \(R^{2}\) RMSE \(R^{2}\)
Sub01 sEMG 13.40 0.955 14.59 0.953 14.42 0.936
US imaging 13.85 0.952 13.38 0.960 18.79 0.893
sEMG-US imaging 12.61 0.960 12.76 0.964 12.95 0.949
Sub02 sEMG 13.47 0.823 11.29 0.874 10.62 0.862
US imaging 16.86 0.724 13.76 0.816 12.28 0.818
sEMG-US imaging 13.41 0.822 8.79 0.922 10.01 0.877
Sub03 sEMG 11.55 0.950 12.07 0.946 13.53 0.924
US imaging 11.62 0.950 13.01 0.938 16.19 0.916
sEMG-US imaging 9.38 0.967 11.30 0.952 11.38 0.951
Sub04 sEMG 14.91 0.893 14.89 0.913 17.14 0.848
US imaging 17.26 0.857 15.13 0.911 23.52 0.723
sEMG-US imaging 14.87 0.894 14.86 0.914 17.12 0.849
Sub05 sEMG 6.79 0.963 8.15 0.954 10.60 0.892
US imaging 6.87 0.961 8.51 0.949 12.97 0.840
sEMG-US imaging 6.67 0.964 8.08 0.954 10.48 0.895
Sub06 sEMG 8.74 0.964 18.06 0.884 13.13 0.905
US imaging 13.54 0.915 15.99 0.908 17.32 0.832
sEMG-US imaging 8.37 0.967 13.91 0.931 11.76 0.922
Sub07 sEMG 7.66 0.941 10.59 0.898 9.46 0.890
US imaging 7.38 0.946 9.37 0.920 10.41 0.868
sEMG-US imaging 7.04 0.951 9.02 0.927 8.64 0.909
Sub08 sEMG 11.74 0.912 14.98 0.864 14.98 0.864
US imaging 10.82 0.925 14.27 0.877 14.27 0.877
sEMG-US imaging 10.44 0.931 13.76 0.886 13.76 0.886
Sub09 sEMG 7.55 0.925 8.02 0.954 10.58 0.929
US imaging 9.64 0.878 8.28 0.923 14.38 0.870
sEMG-US imaging 6.87 0.955 7.92 0.955 10.08 0.933
Sub10 sEMG 12.10 0.946 10.85 0.956 13.14 0.939
US imaging 12.89 0.939 11.86 0.948 17.26 0.906
sEMG-US imaging 10.19 0.962 10.08 0.962 12.37 0.960
  1. (RMSE unit: N\(\cdot\)m)