Skip to main content

Table 5 Overview of the pneumatic devices.

From: Upper limb soft robotic wearable devices: a systematic review

Scenario

DOF

Low-level Control

High-level Control

TRL

Year and Related works

A

2, S: abd/add, E: flex/ext

Pressure

4

2004 [108, 109]

A

1, W: flex/ext

Pressure

Bending signal trigger

5

2005 [25]

R

4, E: flex/ext, FA: pron/sup, W: flex/ext, ulnar/radial dev

Force

Individual actuators control to induce muscle activation pattern

5

2013 [110,111,112,113,114,115]

R

3, FA: pron/sup, W: flex/ext, ulnar/radial dev

Pressure

4/5

2015 [116]

R

2, W: flex/ext radial/ulnar dev

Position

5

2015 [76]

R

1, E: flex/ext

Position

Pre-defined joint trajectory

5

2015 [22]

A

1, S: abd/add

Position

4

2016 [15]

R

2, W: flex/ext, radial/ulnar dev

Pressure

Manually defined setpoint

4

2017 [117, 118]

R

1, E: flex/ext

Pressure

Pre-defined or EMG triggered

5

2017 [24]

A

2, S: abd/add, flex/ext

Position

4

2017 [14]

A

1, S: abd/add

Position

4

2017 [119]

R

3, S: flex-ext, E: flex-ext, FA: pron-sup

Pressure

Manually defined setpoint

4

2018 [26]

A/I

1, E: flex/ext

-

4

2018 [120, 121]

A

1, E: flex/ext

Pressure

Bending signal trigger

5

2018 [122, 123]

Sport

1, S: Bat swing assistance in baseball

Pressure

Acceleration signal trigger

5

2018 [50]

Sport

1, S: forehand swing motion Medical

Pressure

Electric valve switch

5

2018 [51]

R

2, E: flex/ext, FA: pron/sup

Pressure

4

2018 [124]

R

2, W: flex/ext, radial/ulnar dev

Position

Mirroring the healthy limb

5

2018 [70]

R

2, S: Bimanual wheelchair push

Pressure

IMUs signal-based trigger

5

2018 [69]

I

1, E: flex/ext

Pressure

Manually defined setpoint

4

2018 [20]

Medical

3, S: abd/add, flex/ext, E: flex/ext

Pressure

4

2019 [77, 125]

-

1, E: flex/ext

Pressure

4

2019 [126]

R/A

2, S: abd/add, flex/ext

Pressure

Joystick

4

2019 [21]

R

1, S: abd/add

Pressure

Buttons trigger inflation and deflation

4/5

2019 [63]

R

1, E: flex/ext

Position

Pre-defined joint trajectory

3

2019 [23, 127]

R

2, W: flex/ext, radial/ulnar dev

Pressure

4

2019 [128]

R

1, FA: pron/sup

Position

Pre-defined joint trajectory

4

2019 [129]

R

2, S: elev, E: flex/ext

Position

Mirroring the healthy limb

5

2019 [71]

R

1, FA: pron/sup

Pressure

Pre-defined assistance levels

4

2019 [130]

R

1, S: abd/add

Pressure

Linear increase of pressure during abduction

4

2019 [131]

R

4, S: flex/ext, E: flex/ext, FA: pron/sup, W: flex/ext

Pressure

Button-triggered manually adjustable setpoint

5/6

2020 [64, 132]

I/R

3, S: flex/ext, E: flex/ext, W: flex/ext both single and dual arm

Force

Action and pose recognition

6

2020 [65, 67]

R/A

1

Pressure

4

2020 [133]

R

1, S: abd/add

-

3

2020 [27]

Medical

1, S: abd/add

-

4

2020 [134]

R

1, S: elev

Pressure

Manually defined setpoint

5/6

2020 [19]

  1. S = shoulder, E = elbow, FA = forearm, W = wrist, abd = abduction, add = adduction, flex = flexion, ext = extension, rot = rotation, pron = pronation, sup = supination, dev = deviation, elev = elevation, R = rehabilitation, A = assistance, I = industrial