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Table 5 Overview of the pneumatic devices.

From: Upper limb soft robotic wearable devices: a systematic review

Scenario DOF Low-level Control High-level Control TRL Year and Related works
A 2, S: abd/add, E: flex/ext Pressure 4 2004 [108, 109]
A 1, W: flex/ext Pressure Bending signal trigger 5 2005 [25]
R 4, E: flex/ext, FA: pron/sup, W: flex/ext, ulnar/radial dev Force Individual actuators control to induce muscle activation pattern 5 2013 [110,111,112,113,114,115]
R 3, FA: pron/sup, W: flex/ext, ulnar/radial dev Pressure 4/5 2015 [116]
R 2, W: flex/ext radial/ulnar dev Position 5 2015 [76]
R 1, E: flex/ext Position Pre-defined joint trajectory 5 2015 [22]
A 1, S: abd/add Position 4 2016 [15]
R 2, W: flex/ext, radial/ulnar dev Pressure Manually defined setpoint 4 2017 [117, 118]
R 1, E: flex/ext Pressure Pre-defined or EMG triggered 5 2017 [24]
A 2, S: abd/add, flex/ext Position 4 2017 [14]
A 1, S: abd/add Position 4 2017 [119]
R 3, S: flex-ext, E: flex-ext, FA: pron-sup Pressure Manually defined setpoint 4 2018 [26]
A/I 1, E: flex/ext - 4 2018 [120, 121]
A 1, E: flex/ext Pressure Bending signal trigger 5 2018 [122, 123]
Sport 1, S: Bat swing assistance in baseball Pressure Acceleration signal trigger 5 2018 [50]
Sport 1, S: forehand swing motion Medical Pressure Electric valve switch 5 2018 [51]
R 2, E: flex/ext, FA: pron/sup Pressure 4 2018 [124]
R 2, W: flex/ext, radial/ulnar dev Position Mirroring the healthy limb 5 2018 [70]
R 2, S: Bimanual wheelchair push Pressure IMUs signal-based trigger 5 2018 [69]
I 1, E: flex/ext Pressure Manually defined setpoint 4 2018 [20]
Medical 3, S: abd/add, flex/ext, E: flex/ext Pressure 4 2019 [77, 125]
- 1, E: flex/ext Pressure 4 2019 [126]
R/A 2, S: abd/add, flex/ext Pressure Joystick 4 2019 [21]
R 1, S: abd/add Pressure Buttons trigger inflation and deflation 4/5 2019 [63]
R 1, E: flex/ext Position Pre-defined joint trajectory 3 2019 [23, 127]
R 2, W: flex/ext, radial/ulnar dev Pressure 4 2019 [128]
R 1, FA: pron/sup Position Pre-defined joint trajectory 4 2019 [129]
R 2, S: elev, E: flex/ext Position Mirroring the healthy limb 5 2019 [71]
R 1, FA: pron/sup Pressure Pre-defined assistance levels 4 2019 [130]
R 1, S: abd/add Pressure Linear increase of pressure during abduction 4 2019 [131]
R 4, S: flex/ext, E: flex/ext, FA: pron/sup, W: flex/ext Pressure Button-triggered manually adjustable setpoint 5/6 2020 [64, 132]
I/R 3, S: flex/ext, E: flex/ext, W: flex/ext both single and dual arm Force Action and pose recognition 6 2020 [65, 67]
R/A 1 Pressure 4 2020 [133]
R 1, S: abd/add - 3 2020 [27]
Medical 1, S: abd/add - 4 2020 [134]
R 1, S: elev Pressure Manually defined setpoint 5/6 2020 [19]
  1. S = shoulder, E = elbow, FA = forearm, W = wrist, abd = abduction, add = adduction, flex = flexion, ext = extension, rot = rotation, pron = pronation, sup = supination, dev = deviation, elev = elevation, R = rehabilitation, A = assistance, I = industrial