Skip to main content

Table 5 The number of Level 1, 2, 3 or 4 studies showing significant improvements for each outcome category (ordered from most to least frequently studied)

From: Functional electrical stimulation cycling exercise after spinal cord injury: a systematic review of health and fitness-related outcomes

Outcome category Total Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Muscle health 30 out of 36 0 out of 1 3 out of 3 12 out of 16 15 out of 16
Power output 34 out of 35 0 out of 0 0 out of 0 29 out of 30 5 out of 5
Aerobic fitness 20 out of 26 0 out of 0 0 out of 0 17 out of 21 3 out of 5
Bone health 11 out of 23 0 out of 0 1 out of 2 6 out of 12 4 out of 9
Cardiovascular and metabolic factors 16 out of 21 0 out of 0 0 out of 0 12 out of 17 4 out of 4
Fat mass 8 out of 16 0 out of 1 1 out of 2 1 out of 3 6 out of 10
Muscle strength 12 out of 14 0 out of 0 0 out of 1 10 out of 11 2 out of 2
Other secondary health conditions 7 out of 13 0 out of 1 1 out of 2 5 out of 7 1 out of 3
Subjective well-being 7 out of 10 0 out of 1 0 out of 0 3 out of 4 4 out of 5
Functional and neurological outcomes 3 out of 5 0 out of 0 0 out of 0 3 out of 5 0 out of 0
  1. Further details on data extraction for each study: https://osf.io/u9mvx/
  2. AIS American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale