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Table 3 Duration, matched groups, outcome measurements, overall findings, number of included neurorehabilitation principles

From: Serious games for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: a meta-analysis

Authors and publication year Durationa Matched groupsb UL function UL activity Participation Overall findingsc Principlesd
Adomaviciene, 2019 [51] 2 FMA-UE BBT    +  4
Ang, 2014 [52] 6 FMA-UE     =  5
Aprile [53] 6 FMA-UEs ARATs    =  10
Askin, 2018 [54] 4 X FMA-UEm, s BBTm, s    +  6
Brunner, 2017 [40] 4   ARATs, BBT    =  4
Cameirao, 2011 [55] 12 FMA-UE     +  6
Cameirao, 2012 [56] 4 FMA-UE BBT    +  6
Cho, 2019 [57] 6 FMA-UE ARAT, BBT    +  6
Choi, 2016 [58] 2 FMA-UE s     +  8
Crosbie, 2012 [59] 3   ARAT s    =  6
Dehem, 2019 [14] 9 FMA-UE BBT SIS  +  9
Duff, 2013 [60] 4 FMA-UEm, s WMFTm, s SIS  =  9
Henrique, 2019 [61] 12 FMA-UE     +  9
Housman, 2009 [62] 9 FMA-UE     +  5
Hung, 2019 [13] 12 FMA-UEm, s WMFTm, s    =  8
Jang, 2005 [63] 4 FMAs BBTs    +  10
Jo, 2012 [64] 4 X   WMFT    +  9
Kim, 2018 [65] 2 FMA-UEs BBTs    =  7
Kiper, 2011 [66] 4 FMA-UEs     +  9
Kiper, 2014 [67] 4 FMA-UEs     +  9
Kiper, 2018 [46] 4 FMA-UEs     +  8
Klamroth-Marganska, 2014 [68] 8 FMA-UE   SIS  +  7
Kottink, 2014 [32] 6 FMA-UE ARAT    =  6
Kwon, 2012 [69] 4 X FMA-UEs     =  5
Laffont [44] 6 FMA-UE BBT, WMFT    =  8
Lee, 2016a [70] 8 FMA-UEs BBTs    +  8
Lee, 2016b [71] 6   BBT    +  9
Lee, 2018 [72] 8 FMA-UEs     +  8
Levin, 2012 [73] 3 FMA-UEs BBTs, WMFT    +  9
Liao, 2012 [74] 4 FMA-UEs     +  7
Mugler, 2019 [75] 3 X FMA-UE     =  8
Nijenhuis, 2017 [76] 6 FMA-UEm, s ARATm, s, BBT SIS  =  5
Norouzi-Gheidari, 2019 [39] 4 X FMA-UEs BBTs SISs  +  8
Ogun, 2019 [77] 6 FMA-UEs ARATs    +  8
Oh, 2019 [17] 6 FMA-UE BBT    +  9
Park, 2019 [33] 4 FMA-UE WMFT SIS  =  9
Piron, 2009 [78] 4 FMA-UEs     +  8
Piron (2010) [47] 4 FMA-UEs     +  10
Prange, 2015, [79] 6   BBT    +  9
Rogers2019 [80] 4 X FMA-UEs     =  5
Schuster-Amft, 2018 [81] 4   BBTm, s SIS  =  7
Shin, 2014 [82] 2 X FMA-UEs     =  8
Shin, 2015 [83] 4 FMA-UEm, s     =  9
Shin, 2016 [84] 4 FMA-UEs   SISs  +  10
Subramanian, 2012 [85] 4 FMA-UE     +  8
Thielbar, 2014 [86] 6 FMA-UEs ARATs    +  10
Thielbar, 2020 [87] 4 FMA-UE     +  8
Tomic, 2017 [88] 3 FMA-UE WMFT    +  8
Wolf, 2015 [89] 8 FMA-UEs ARATs, WMFT    =  6
Yin, 2014 [90] 2 FMA-UEm, s ARATm, s    =  11
Zondervan, 2016 [91] 3   ARAT, BBT    =  7
  1. UL upper limb, FMA-UE Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity subscale, ARAT action research arm test, BBT box and block test, WMFT Wolf-motor function test, SIS stroke impact scale, , matched time between interventions; X, time between interventions not matched; + , statistically significant improvement in favour of experimental group for main outcomes; = , no statistically significant differences reported between experimental and control group
  2. aDuration: total number of treatment weeks
  3. bMatched groups: matched time in terms of daily session time, sessions per week and total number of weeks between experimental and control group
  4. cOverall findings: reported findings concerning primary outcome measures
  5. dPrinciples: total number of neuro-rehabilitation principles fulfilled by the serious game used in the intervention. A total of 11 principles were examined for each trial
  6. mStudies that reported only median and quartiles
  7. sStudies for which the standard deviation had to be estimated