Spinal cord injury statistics in Australia. https://scia.org.au/sci-statistics. Accessed 18 Feb 2021
Post MW, de Witte LP, van Asbeck FW, van Dijk AJ, Schrijvers AJ. Predictors of health status and life satisfaction in spinal cord injury. Arch Physical Med Rehab. 1998;79(4):395–401.
Dietz V. Neuronal plasticity after a human spinal cord injury: positive and negative effects. Exp Neurol. 2012;235(1):110–5.
Behrman AL, Bowden MG, Nair PM. Neuroplasticity after spinal cord injury and training: an emerging paradigm shift in rehabilitation and walking recovery. Phys Ther. 2006;86(10):1406–25.
Neto FR, Lopes GH. Body composition modifications in people with chronic spinal cord injury after supervised physical activity. J Spinal Cord Med. 2011;34(6):586–93.
Choi HJ, Kim GS, Chai JH, Koh CY. Effect of gait training program with mechanical exoskeleton on body composition of paraplegics. J Multidiscip Health. 2020;13:1879–86.
Hartigan C, Farris R. The future promise of lower limb robotic exoskeletons. J Nurse Life Care Plan. 2015;15(2):854–9.
Gorgey AS. Robotic exoskeletons: the current pros and cons. World J Orthop. 2018;9(9):112–9.
Fritz H, Patzer D, Galen SS. Robotic exoskeletons for reengaging in everyday activities: promises, pitfalls, and opportunities. Disabil Rehabil. 2019;41(5):560–3.
ReWalk. https://rewalk.com. Accessed 18 Sept 2019.
EksoBionics. https://eksobionics.com. Accessed 18 Sept 2019.
Indego. http://www.indego.com/indego/us/en/home. Accessed 18 Sept 2019.
Tefertiller C, Hays K, Jones J, Jayaraman A, Hartigan C, Bushnik T, Forrest GF. Initial outcomes from a multicenter study utilizing the indego powered exoskeleton in spinal cord injury. TSCIR. 2018;24(1):78–85.
Esquenazi A, Talaty M, Packel A, Saulino M. The ReWalk powered exoskeleton to restore ambulatory function to individuals with thoracic-level motor-complete spinal cord injury. 2012. p. 911–21.
Juszczak M, Gallo E, Bushnik T. Examining the effects of a powered exoskeleton on quality of life and secondary impairments in people living with spinal cord injury. TSCIR. 2018;24(4):336–42.
Birch N, Graham J, Priestley T, Heywood C, Sakel M, Gall A, Nunn A, Signal N. Results of the first interim analysis of the RAPPER II trial in patients with spinal cord injury: ambulation and functional exercise programs in the REX powered walking aid. JNER. 2017;14:1–10.
McIntosh K, Charbonneau R, Bensaada Y, Bhatiya U, Ho C. The safety and feasibility of exoskeletal-assisted walking in acute rehabilitation after spinal cord injury. Arch Physical Med Rehab. 2020;101(1):113–20.
Lam T, Williams A, Deegan E, Walter M, Stothers L. Can exoskeleton gait training improve lower urinary tract function in people with spinal cord injury? Preliminary findings from a randomized pilot trial. Neurourol Urodyn. 2019;38(Suppl 3):S342–3.
Miller LE, Zimmermann AK, Herbert WG. Clinical effectiveness and safety of powered exoskeleton-assisted walking in patients with spinal cord injury: systematic review with meta-analysis. Med Devices. 2016;9:455–66.
Stampacchia G, Rustici A, Bigazzi S, Gerini A, Tombini T, Mazzoleni S. Walking with a powered robotic exoskeleton: subjective experience, spasticity and pain in spinal cord injured persons. NeuroRehabilitation. 2016;39(2):277–83.
Tatla SK, Shirzad N, Lohse KR, Virji-Babul N, Hoens AM, Holsti L, Li LC, Miller KJ, Lam MY, Van der Loos HFM. Therapists’ perceptions of social media and video game technologies in upper limb rehabilitation. JMIR Serious Games. 2015;3(1):e2.
Wu CH, Mao HF, Hu JS, Wang TY, Tsai YJ, Hsu WL. The effects of gait training using powered lower limb exoskeleton robot on individuals with complete spinal cord injury. JNER. 2018;15(1):1.
Karelis A, Carvahlho L, Castillo M, Gagnon D, Aubertin-Leheudre M. Effect on body composition and bone mineral density of walking with a robotic exoskeleton in adults with chronic spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Med. 2017;49:84–7.
Zeilig G, Weingarden H, Zwecker M, Dudkiewicz I, Bloch A, Esquenazi A. Safety and tolerance of the ReWalkTM exoskeleton suit for ambulation by people with complete spinal cord injury: a pilot study. J Spinal Cord Med. 2012;35(2):96–101.
Yang A, Asselin P, Knezevic S, Kornfeld S, Spungen AM. Assessment of in-hospital walking velocity and level of assistance in a powered exoskeleton in persons with spinal cord injury. TSCIR. 2015;21(2):100–9.
van Herpen FHM, van Dijsseldonk RB, Rijken H, Keijsers NLW, Louwerens JWK, van Nes IJW. Case report: description of two fractures during the use of a powered exoskeleton. Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2019;5:99.
Heinemann AW, Jayaraman A, Mummidisetty CK, Spraggins J, Pinto D, Charlifue S, Tefertiller C, Taylor HB, Chang SH, Stampas A, Furbish CL, Field-Fote EC. Experience of robotic exoskeleton use at four spinal cord injury model systems centers. JNPT. 2018;42(4):256–67.
Xiang XN, Ding MF, Zong HY, Liu Y, Cheng H, He CQ, He HC. The safety and feasibility of a new rehabilitation robotic exoskeleton for assisting individuals with lower extremity motor complete lesions following spinal cord injury (SCI): an observational study. Spinal Cord. 2020;58:787–94.
Lajeunesse V, Lettre J, Routhier F, Vincent C, Michaud F. Perspectives of individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury concerning the usability of lower limb exoskeletons: an exploratory study. Technol Disabil. 2018;30:63–76.
Smith AJJ, Fournier BN, Nantel J, Lemaire ED. Estimating upper extremity joint loads of persons with spinal cord injury walking with a lower extremity powered exoskeleton and forearm crutches. J Biomech. 2020;107:109835.
Rex Bionics. https://www.rexbionics.com/. Accessed 24 Jan 2019.
Almeida C, Coelho JN, Riberto M. Applicability, validation and reproducibility of the spinal cord independence measure version III (SCIM III) in patients with non-traumatic spinal cord lesions. Disabil Rehabil. 2016;38(22):2229–34.
Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, Cummings JL, Chertkow H. The Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(4):695–9.
Barbareschi G, Richards R, Thornton M, Carlson T, Holloway C. Statically vs dynamically balanced gait: analysis of a robotic exoskeleton compared with a human. Conf Proc Annual Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc Annual Conf. 2015;2015:6728–31.
ASIA Scale: American Spinal Injury Association. https://asia-spinalinjury.org/international-standards-neurological-classification-sci-isncsci-worksheet/. Accessed 18 Feb 2021.
Bluvshtein V, Front L, Itzkovich M, Aidinoff E, Gelernter I, Hart J, Biering-Soerensen F, Weeks C, Laramee MT, Craven C, Hitzig SL, Glaser E, Zeilig G, Aito S, Scivoletto G, Mecci M, Chadwick RJ, Masry WSE, Osman A, Glass CA, Silva P, Soni BM, Gardner BP, Savic G, Bergstrom EM, Catz A. SCIM III is reliable and valid in a separate analysis for traumatic spinal cord lesions. Spinal Cord. 2011;49(2):292–6.
Shin JC, Yoo JH, Jung TH, Goo HR. Comparison of lower extremity motor score parameters for patients with motor incomplete spinal cord injury using gait parameters. Spinal Cord. 2011;49(4):529–33.
Glinsky J. Tardieu scale. J Physiother. 2016;62(4):229.
Bohannon RW, Shove ME, Barreca SR, Masters LM, Sigouin CS. Five-repetition sit-to-stand test performance by community-dwelling adults: a preliminary investigation of times, determinants, and relationship with self-reported physical performance. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2007;15(2):77–81.
Weiner DK, Duncan PW, Chandler J, Studenski SA. Functional reach: a marker of physical frailty. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40(3):203–7.
Biodynamics Corporation. https://www.biodyncorp.com/product/products_bio.html. Accessed 18 Feb 2021.
Bjelland I, Dahl AA, Haug TT, Neckelmann D. The validity of the hospital anxiety and depression scale: an updated literature review. J Psychosom Res. 2002;52(2):69–77.
Michielsen HJ, De Vries J, van Heck GL. Psychometric qualities of a brief self-rated fatigue measure: the fatigue assessment scale. J Psychosom Res. 2003;54(4):345–52.
Wang P, Luo N, Tai ES, Lee J, Wee HL, Thumboo J. Relative efficiency of the SF-8, SF-12, and SF-36 in the general population. Value Health. 2012;15(7):A651.
Wu X, Liu J, Tanadini LG, Lammertse DP, Blight AR, Kramer JLK, Scivoletto G, Jones L, Kirshblum S, Abel R, Fawcett J, Field-Fote E, Guest J, Levinson B, Maier D, Tansey K, Weidner N, Tetzlaff WG, Hothorn T, Curt A, Steeves JD. Challenges for defining minimal clinically important difference (MCID) after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2015;53(2):84–91.
Pi-Sunyer FX. Medical hazards of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119(7 Pt 2):655–60.
Sadowsky C, Bae SH, Quintana JO. Testosterone, lean muscle and bone mass and SCIM scores in males with spinal cord related paralysis. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 2019;100(10):e127.
Gagnon DH, Vermette M, Duclos C, Aubertin-Leheudre M, Ahmed S, Kairy D. Satisfaction and perceptions of long-term manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury upon completion of a locomotor training program with an overground robotic exoskeleton. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2019;14(2):138–45.
Gauthier C, Arel J, Brosseau R, Ménard P, Hicks AL, Gagnon D. Reliability and minimal detectable change of a task-specific treadmill wheelchair propulsion test to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in manual wheelchair users. Physiotherapy. 2015;101:e448.
Thomassen GKK, Jorgensen V, Normann B. “Back at the same level as everyone else”-user perspectives on walking with an exoskeleton, a qualitative study. Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2019;5(1):103.
Benson I, Hart K, Tussler D, van Middendorp JJ. Lower-limb exoskeletons for individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: findings from a feasibility study. Clin Rehabil. 2016;30(1):73–84.
Wolff J, Parker C, Borisoff J, Mortenson WB, Mattie J. A survey of stakeholder perspectives on exoskeleton technology. JNER. 2014;11(1):208–29.
Manns PJ, Hurd C, Yang JF. Perspectives of people with spinal cord injury learning to walk using a powered exoskeleton. JNER. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-019-0565-1.
Postol N, Lamond S, Galloway M, Palazzi K, Bivard A, Spratt NJ, Marquez J. The metabolic cost of exercising with a robotic exoskeleton: a comparison of healthy and neurologically impaired people. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2020;12:3031–9.