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Table 1 Overview of the neuro-control capabilities of the device

From: EMG-driven control in lower limb prostheses: a topic-based systematic review

Ref. Control strategy Neuro-control Actuator control signal Joint Platform
[64] IEC Direct control on the joint lock mechanism Switch signal of the electromagnetic clutch Knee E.C.P. (Electro-Control Prosthesis)\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[29] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Servo-amplifier electrohydraulic valve level Knee Prosthesis simulator (hydraulic system externally supplied and controlled)\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[24,25,26,27] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint angle reference Knee ABS\(^{\star }\); off-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[56] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint torque reference Knee Vanderbilt micro-controlled leg prosthesis\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[14, 23, 62, 63] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint torque reference Knee Clarkson university knee powered prosthesis prototype\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[57] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE and IE Joint torque reference Knee, ankle Virtual environment\(^{\star }\), powered knee prosthesis prototype (Center for Bionic Medicine, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago)\(^{\dag }\)
[37] IEC Direct control on joint angle movement Joint angle reference Ankle Passive prosthetic feet\(^{\star }\); on-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[16] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint angular velocity Ankle On-line VS\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[67, 68] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Force reference of artificial pneumatic muscles Ankle Artificial pneumatic muscles powered ankle prosthesis prototype (University of Michigan)\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[76] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint angle reference Ankle On-line VS\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\); ankle prototype \(^{\dag }\)
[11] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint angle reference Knee, ankle ABS\(^{\star }\); off-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[39, 40] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint torque reference Ankle On-line VS\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[98] CIC Control of walking control ground-level or slopes NI Knee Four-bar linkage mechanism, Ottobock\(^{\star }\); Endolite, Blatchford\(^{\star }\)
[70] CIC Adaptive control based on locomotion recognition Stepper motor control driving a gear train Knee Prototype leg prosthesis (step motor driving the shaft of six-bar knee)\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[5] CIC Transition between level-ground to stairs intrinsic adaptive control Joint position/torque (control state dependent) Ankle On-line VS\(^{\star }\); BiOM ankle-foot prosthesis, MIT Media Lab\(^{\star }\)
[65, 66, 141, 144] CIC Adaptive control based on locomotion recognition NI Knee Mauch SNS, Össur\(^{\star }\); off-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[66] CIC Adaptive control based on locomotion recognition NI Knee Hydraulic passive knee\(^{\star }\); off-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[53] CIC Adaptive control based on locomotion recognition Position and velocity joint trajectory Knee, ankle NS\(^{\star }\); off-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[85] CIC Adaptive control based on walking phase recognition NI Knee ABS\(^{\star }\); off-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[15, 110] CIC Adaptive control based on walking phase recognition NI Knee ABS\(^{\star }\); off-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[32, 33, 143] CIC Adaptive control based on locomotion recognition NI in passive MLLPs; joint torque for active MLLP Knee Knee–ankle powered prototype\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[86, 87] CIC Adaptive control based on locomotion recognition NI Ankle Passive ankle\(^{\star }\); off-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[120] CIC Joint DoF motion determination NS Ankle On-line VS\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[58, 111] CIC-IEC Adaptive control based on locomotion recognition; non-weight bearing voluntary control of joints FE Joint torque reference Knee, ankle Vanderbilt micro-controlled leg prosthesis\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[59, 113, 114, 139, 140] CIC Adaptive control based on locomotion recognition Joint torque reference Knee, ankle Vanderbilt micro-controlled leg prosthesis\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[17] CIC Adaptive control based on terrain slope estimation Joint damping reference Ankle Peking university PKU-RoboTPro\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[106] CIC EMG-triggered stride motion routine Motor current reference Knee Prototype leg prosthesis\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[54, 55] CIC Adaptive control based on locomotion recognition NI Ankle ABS\(^{\star }\); off-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
[6] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint angle reference Ankle On-line VS\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[61] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint torque reference Knee ABS with ABA and powered knee prosthetic prototype\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[136] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint torque reference Knee ABS with ABA and Vanderbilt micro-controlled leg prosthesis\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[71, 72, 130] CIC-IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint torque reference Ankle BiOM ankle-foot prosthesis, MIT Media Lab\(^{{\star } {\dag }}\)
[19] IEC Voluntary control of joint FE Joint torque reference Knee ABS\(^{\star }\); on-line VS\(^{\dag }\)
  1. Fields include: paper reference; control strategy (the neural control strategy used for the high-level control function implementation: CIC or IEC); neuro-control (the use of input neural signals for the generated output movement); actuator control signal (the output signal from the high-level EMG-driven control); joint (the controlled lower limb joint); platform (the device used for acquisition and testing)
  2. NI not implemented, NS not stated, IEC interactive extrinsic contro, CIC computational intrinsic contro, FE flexion-extension; IE internal-external rotation, DoF Degrees of Freedom, ABS able-bodied subjects, ABA able-body adaptor, VS virtual simulator
  3. \(^{\star }\)Platform for data acquisition
  4. \(^{\dag }\)Platform for control testing