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Table 3 Within-group and between-group comparisons of gait performance in the RAGT and control groups at postintervention and 3-month follow-up

From: Hybrid robot-assisted gait training for motor function in subacute stroke: a single-blind randomized controlled trial

  RAGT Control Pb value Pc value Cohen’s d post Cohen’s d 3-month
Post (n = 8) 3-month follow-up (n = 15) Pa value Post (n = 8) 3-month follow-up (n = 16) Pa value
POMA_Gait 7.4 ± 2.1 8.4 ± 2.8 0.02* 7.1 ± 3.1 6.6 ± 3.2 0.11 0.44 0.06 0.11 0.60
3 m (s) 17.2 ± 11.9 12.9 ± 13.7 0.01* 14.8 ± 8.0 12.7 ± 8.4 0.02* 0.88 0.57 0.24 0.02
10 m (s) 52.2 ± 36.4 41.5 ± 46.3 0.04* 41.9 ± 22.5 37.9 ± 25.9 0.02* 0.72 0.74 0.34 0.10
TUG (s) 48.7 ± 32.6 35.3 ± 27.1 0.03* 39.4 ± 19.3 37.1 ± 22.8 0.02* 0.72 0.65 0.35 − 0.07
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation
  2. POMA_Gait: Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment Gait; 3 m: 3-m walk test; 10 m: 10-m walk test; TUG: Timed Up and Go
  3. *P < 0.05 by Mann–Whitney U Test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the within-group and between-group comparisons between two time points
  4. aWithin-group difference at 3-month follow-up
  5. bBetween-group difference postintervention
  6. cBetween-group difference at 3-month follow-up