Sinha R, van den Heuvel WJ, Arokiasamy P. Factors affecting quality of life in lower limb amputees. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2011;35(1):90–6.
Amtmann D, Morgan SJ, Kim J, Hafner BJ. Health-related profiles of people with lower limb loss. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(8):1474–83.
Kovač I, Kauzlaric N, Živkovic O, Muzic V, Abramovic M, Vuletic Z, et al. Rehabilitation of lower limb amputees. Period Biol. 2015;117(1):147–59.
Geertzen J, van der Linde H, Rosenbrand K, Conradi M, Deckers J, Koning J, et al. Dutch evidence-based guidelines for amputation and prosthetics of the lower extremity: rehabilitation process and prosthetics. Part 2. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2015;39(5):361–71.
O’Keeffe B, Rout S. Prosthetic rehabilitation in the lower limb. Indian J Plast Surg. 2019;52(1):134–43.
Crowe CS, Impastato KA, Donaghy AC, Earl C, Friedly JL, Keys KA. Prosthetic and orthotic options for lower extremity amputation and reconstruction. Plast Aesthet Res. 2019;6:4.
Vetrayan J, Abd Ghafar NB, Paulraj SJPV, Murad MS. Occupational performance role and satisfaction among lower limb amputees with different adaptive devices usage. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2016;222:432–41.
Demirdel S, Ülger Ö. Body image disturbance, psychosocial adjustment and quality of life in adolescents with amputation. Disabil Health J. 2021;14(3): 101068.
Steinberg N, Gottlieb A, Siev-Ner I, Plotnik M. Fall incidence and associated risk factors among people with a lower limb amputation during various stages of recovery—a systematic review. Disabil Rehabil. 2019;41(15):1778–87.
Rodrigues FB, Andrade AO, Vieira MF. Effects of inclined surfaces on gait variability and stability in unilateral lower limb amputees. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2019;57(11):2337–46.
McDonald CL, Westcott-McCoy S, Weaver MR, Haagsma J, Kartin D. Global prevalence of traumatic non-fatal limb amputation. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2020;45(2):105–14.
Chihuri ST, Youdan GA Jr, Wong CK. Quantifying the risk of falls and injuries for amputees beyond annual fall rates—a longitudinal cohort analysis based on person-step exposure over time. Prevent Med Rep. 2021;24: 101626.
Hartholt KA, van Beeck EF, Polinder S, van der Velde N, van Lieshout EM, Panneman MJ, et al. Societal consequences of falls in the older population: injuries, healthcare costs, and long-term reduced quality of life. J Trauma. 2011;71(3):748–53.
Pran L, Baijoo S, Harnanan D, Slim H, Maharaj R, Naraynsingh V. Quality of life experienced by major lower extremity amputees. Cureus. 2021;13(8): e17440.
Davie-Smith F, Coulter E, Kennon B, Wyke S, Paul L. Factors influencing quality of life following lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial occlusive disease: a systematic review of the literature. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2017;41(6):537–47.
Batten H, Lamont R, Kuys S, McPhail S, Mandrusiak A. What are the barriers and enablers that people with a lower limb amputation experience when walking in the community? Disabil Rehabil. 2020;42(24):3481–7.
Fogelberg DJ, Allyn KJ, Smersh M, Maitland ME. What people want in a prosthetic foot: a focus group study. J Prosthet Orthot. 2016;28(4):145–51.
McDonald CL, Cheever SM, Morgan SJ, Hafner BJ. Prosthetic limb user experiences with crossover feet: a pilot focus group study to explore outcomes that matter. J Prosthet Orthot. 2019;31(2):121–32.
Varrecchia T, Serrao M, Rinaldi M, Ranavolo A, Conforto S, De Marchis C, et al. Common and specific gait patterns in people with varying anatomical levels of lower limb amputation and different prosthetic components. Hum Mov Sci. 2019;66:9–21.
Petrini FM, Bumbasirevic M, Valle G, Ilic V, Mijović P, Čvančara P, et al. Sensory feedback restoration in leg amputees improves walking speed, metabolic cost and phantom pain. Nat Med. 2019;25(9):1356–63.
Esquenazi A. Gait analysis in lower-limb amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2014;25(1):153–67.
Wentink EC, Prinsen EC, Rietman JS, Veltink PH. Comparison of muscle activity patterns of transfemoral amputees and control subjects during walking. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2013;10:87.
Weinert-Aplin RA, Twiste M, Jarvis HL, Bennett AN, Baker RJ. Medial–lateral centre of mass displacement and base of support are equally good predictors of metabolic cost in amputee walking. Gait Posture. 2017;51:41–6.
Gailey R, Allen K, Castles J, Kucharik J, Roeder M. Review of secondary physical conditions associated with lower-limb amputation and long-term prosthesis use. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008;45(1):15–29.
Highsmith MJ, Goff LM, Lewandowski AL, Farrokhi S, Hendershot BD, Hill OT, et al. Low back pain in persons with lower extremity amputation: a systematic review of the literature. Spine J. 2019;19(3):552–63.
Probsting E, Blumentritt S, Kannenberg A. Changes in the locomotor system as a consequence of amputation of a lower limb. Z Orthop Unfall. 2017;155(1):77–91.
Molina-Rueda F, Navarro-Fernández C, Cuesta-Gómez A, Alguacil-Diego IM, Molero-Sánchez A, Carratalá-Tejada M. Neuroplasticity modifications following a lower-limb amputation: a systematic review. PM&R. 2019;11(12):1326–34.
Barnett CT, Vanicek N, Polman RC. Temporal adaptations in generic and population-specific quality of life and falls efficacy in men with recent lower-limb amputations. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013;50(3):437–48.
Akyol Y, Tander B, Goktepe AS, Safaz I, Kuru O, Tan AK. Quality of life in patients with lower limb amputation: does it affect post-amputation pain, functional status, emotional status and perception of body image? J Musculoskelet Pain. 2013;21(4):334–40.
Wurdeman SR, Stevens PM, Campbell JH. Mobility analysis of AmpuTees (MAAT I): quality of life and satisfaction are strongly related to mobility for patients with a lower limb prosthesis. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2018;42(5):498–503.
Lechler K, Frossard B, Whelan L, Langlois D, Müller R, Kristjansson K. Motorized biomechatronic upper and lower limb prostheses-clinically relevant outcomes. PM&R. 2018;10(9 Suppl 2):S207–19.
Versluys R, Beyl P, Van Damme M, Desomer A, Van Ham R, Lefeber D. Prosthetic feet: state-of-the-art review and the importance of mimicking human ankle–foot biomechanics. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2009;4(2):65–75.
Cherelle P, Mathijssen G, Wang QN, Vanderborght B, Lefeber D. Advances in propulsive bionic feet and their actuation principles. Adv Mech Eng. 2014;6: 984046.
Windrich M, Grimmer M, Christ O, Rinderknecht S, Beckerle P. Active lower limb prosthetics: a systematic review of design issues and solutions. Biomed Eng Online. 2016;15(3):140.
Au SK, Weber J, Herr H. Powered ankle–foot prosthesis improves walking metabolic economy. IEEE Trans Rob. 2009;25(1):51–66.
Winter DA, Sienko SE. Biomechanics of below-knee amputee gait. J Biomech. 1988;21(5):361–7.
Laferrier JZ, Gailey R. Advances in lower-limb prosthetic technology. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2010;21(1):87–110.
Asano M, Rushton P, Miller WC, Deathe BA. Predictors of quality of life among individuals who have a lower limb amputation. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2008;32(2):231–43.
Post MWM. Definitions of quality of life: what has happened and how to move on. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2014;20(3):167–80.
Karimi M, Brazier J. Health, health-related quality of life, and quality of life: what is the difference? Pharmacoeconomics. 2016;34(7):645–9.
Gallagher P, Desmond D. Measuring quality of life in prosthetic practice: benefits and challenges. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2007;31(2):167–76.
Chadwell A, Diment L, Micó-Amigo M, Morgado Ramírez DZ, Dickinson A, Granat M, et al. Technology for monitoring everyday prosthesis use: a systematic review. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2020;17(1):93.
Balk EM, Gazula A, Markozannes G, Kimmel HJ, Saldanha IJ, Trikalinos TA, et al. Psychometric properties of functional, ambulatory, and quality of life instruments in lower limb amputees: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019;100(12):2354–70.
Ardern CL, Büttner F, Andrade R, Weir A, Ashe MC, Holden S, et al. Implementing the 27 PRISMA 2020 statement items for systematic reviews in the sport and exercise medicine, musculoskeletal rehabilitation and sports science fields: the PERSiST (implementing Prisma in Exercise, Rehabilitation, Sport medicine and SporTs science) guidance. Br J Sports Med. 2021;56(4):175–95.
McGowan J, Sampson M, Salzwedel DM, Cogo E, Foerster V, Lefebvre C. PRESS peer review of electronic search strategies: 2015 guideline statement. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016;75:40–6.
Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann TC, Mulrow CD, et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ. 2021;372: n71.
Bertos GA, Papadopoulos EG. Lower-limb prosthetics. In: Handbook of biomechatronics. London: Academic Press; 2018. p. 241.
Chumacero E, Masud AA, Isik D, Shen CL, Chyu MC. Advances in powered ankle–foot prostheses. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2018;46(2):93–108.
Harvey ZT, Potter BK, Vandersea J, Wolf E. Prosthetic advances. J Surg Orthop Adv. 2012;21(1):58.
Ouzzani M, Hammady H, Fedorowicz Z, Elmagarmid A. Rayyan—a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 2016;5(1):1–10.
Higgins J, Sterne J, Savović J, Page M, Hróbjartsson A, Boutron I, et al. Revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials. In: Chandler J, McKenzie J, Boutron I, Welch V, editors. Cochrane methods. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2016(10 Suppl 1).
D’Andrea S, Wilhelm N, Silverman AK, Grabowski AM. Does use of a powered ankle–foot prosthesis restore whole-body angular momentum during walking at different speeds? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014;472(10):3044–54.
Darter BJ, Wilken JM. Energetic consequences of using a prosthesis with adaptive ankle motion during slope walking in persons with a transtibial amputation. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2014;38(1):5–11.
Delussu AS, Paradisi F, Brunelli S, Pellegrini R, Zenardi D, Traballesi M. Comparison between SACH foot and a new multiaxial prosthetic foot during walking in hypomobile transtibial amputees: physiological responses and functional assessment. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2016;52(3):304–9.
Esposito ER, Whitehead JMA, Wilken JM. Step-to-step transition work during level and inclined walking using passive and powered ankle–foot prostheses. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2016;40(3):311–9.
Esposito ER, Wilken JM. Biomechanical risk factors for knee osteoarthritis when using passive and powered ankle–foot prostheses. Clin Biomech. 2014;29(10):1186–92.
Ferris AE, Aldridge JM, Rábago CA, Wilken JM. Evaluation of a powered ankle–foot prosthetic system during walking. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93(11):1911–8.
Gates DH, Aldridge JM, Wilken JM. Kinematic comparison of walking on uneven ground using powered and unpowered prostheses. Clin Biomech. 2013;28(4):467–72.
Graham LE, Datta D, Heller B, Howitt J. A comparative study of conventional and energy-storing prosthetic feet in high-functioning transfemoral amputees. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88(6):801–6.
Graham LE, Datta D, Heller B, Howitt J. A comparative study of oxygen consumption for conventional and energy-storing prosthetic feet in transfemoral amputees. Clin Rehabil. 2008;22(10):896–901.
Heitzmann DWW, Salami F, De Asha AR, Block J, Putz C, Wolf SI, et al. Benefits of an increased prosthetic ankle range of motion for individuals with a trans-tibial amputation walking with a new prosthetic foot. Gait Posture. 2018;64:174–80.
Houdijk H, Wezenberg D, Hak L, Cutti AG. Energy storing and return prosthetic feet improve step length symmetry while preserving margins of stability in persons with transtibial amputation. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2018;15:76.
Paradisi F, Delussu AS, Brunelli S, Iosa M, Pellegrini R, Zenardi D, et al. The conventional non-articulated SACH or a multiaxial prosthetic foot for hypomobile transtibial amputees? A clinical comparison on mobility, balance, and quality of life. Sci World J. 2015;2015: 261801.
Prakash A, Kumar R, Kumari P. Designing and evaluation of new dynamic prosthetic foot on transtibial amputees in a low resource setup. Int J Health Allied Sci. 2020;9(4):332–6.
Rábago CA, Aldridge Whitehead J, Wilken JM. Evaluation of a powered ankle–foot prosthesis during slope ascent gait. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(12): e0166815.
Riveras M, Ravera E, Ewins D, Shaheen AF, Catalfamo-Formento P. Minimum toe clearance and tripping probability in people with unilateral transtibial amputation walking on ramps with different prosthetic designs. Gait Posture. 2020;81:41–8.
Schmalz T, Altenburg B, Ernst M, Bellmann M, Rosenbaum D. Lower limb amputee gait characteristics on a specifically designed test ramp: preliminary results of a biomechanical comparison of two prosthetic foot concepts. Gait Posture. 2019;68:161–7.
Wezenberg D, Cutti AG, Bruno A, Houdijk H. Differentiation between solid-ankle cushioned heel and energy storage and return prosthetic foot based on step-to-step transition cost. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014;51(10):1579–90.
Arifin N, Abu Osman NA, Ali S, Gholizadeh H, Wan Abas WAB. Postural stability characteristics of transtibial amputees wearing different prosthetic foot types when standing on various support surfaces. Sci World J. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/856279.
Arifin N, Abu Osman NA, Ali S, Wan Abas WAB. The effects of prosthetic foot type and visual alteration on postural steadiness in below-knee amputees. BioMedical Eng Online. 2014;13(1):1–10.
Childers WL, Takahashi KZ. Increasing prosthetic foot energy return affects whole-body mechanics during walking on level ground and slopes. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):5354.
Davot J, Thomas-Pohl M, Villa C, Bonnet X, Lapeyre E, Bascou J, et al. Experimental characterization of the moment-angle curve during level and slope locomotion of transtibial amputee: which parameters can be extracted to quantify the adaptations of microprocessor prosthetic ankle? Proc Inst Mech Eng H J Eng Med. 2021;235(7):762–9.
De Asha AR, Munjal R, Kulkarni J, Buckley JG. Impact on the biomechanics of overground gait of using an ‘Echelon’ hydraulic ankle–foot device in unilateral trans-tibial and trans-femoral amputees. Clin Biomech. 2014;29(7):728–34.
De Pauw K, Cherelle P, Roelands B, Lefeber D, Meeusen R. The efficacy of the ankle mimicking prosthetic foot prototype 4.0 during walking: physiological determinants. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2018;42(5):504–10.
De Pauw K, Cherelle P, Tassignon B, Van Cutsem J, Roelands B, et al. Cognitive performance and brain dynamics during walking with a novel bionic foot: a pilot study. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(4): e0214711.
De Pauw K, Serrien B, Baeyens JP, Cherelle P, De Bock S, Ghillebert J, et al. Prosthetic gait of unilateral lower-limb amputees with current and novel prostheses: a pilot study. Clin Biomech. 2020;71:59–67.
Gardinier ES, Kelly BM, Wensman J, Gates DH. A controlled clinical trial of a clinically-tuned powered ankle prosthesis in people with transtibial amputation. Clin Rehabil. 2018;32(3):319–29.
Gorjan DGK, De Pauw K, Marusic U. Removal of movement-induced EEG artifacts: current state of the art and guidelines. J Neural Eng. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ac542c.
Grabowski AM, D’Andrea S. Effects of a powered ankle–foot prosthesis on kinetic loading of the unaffected leg during level-ground walking. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2013;10:49.
Hsu MJ, Nielsen DH, Lin-Chan SJ, Shurr D. The effects of prosthetic foot design on physiologic measurements, self-selected walking velocity, and physical activity in people with transtibial amputation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87(1):123–9.
Johnson L, De Asha AR, Munjal R, Kulkarni J, Buckley JG. Toe clearance when walking in people with unilateral transtibial amputation: effects of passive hydraulic ankle. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014;51(3):429–37.
Segal AD, Zelik KE, Klute GK, Morgenroth DC, Hahn ME, Orendurff MS, et al. The effects of a controlled energy storage and return prototype prosthetic foot on transtibial amputee ambulation. Hum Mov Sci. 2012;31(4):918–31.
Struchkov V, Buckley JG. Biomechanics of ramp descent in unilateral trans-tibial amputees: comparison of a microprocessor controlled foot with conventional ankle–foot mechanisms. Clin Biomech. 2016;32:164–70.
Underwood HA, Tokuno CD, Eng JJ. A comparison of two prosthetic feet on the multi-joint and multi-plane kinetic gait compensations in individuals with a unilateral trans-tibial amputation. Clin Biomech. 2004;19(6):609–16.
Yang JR, Yang HS, Ahn DH, Ahn DY, Sim WS, Yang HE. Differences in gait patterns of unilateral transtibial amputees with two types of energy storing prosthetic feet. Ann Rehabil Med. 2018;42(4):609–16.
Gailey RS, Gaunaurd I, Agrawal V, Finnieston A, O’Toole C, Tolchin R. Application of self-report and performance-based outcome measures to determine functional differences between four categories of prosthetic feet. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49(4):597–612.
Fanciullacci C, McKinney Z, Monaco V, Milandri G, Davalli A, Sacchetti R, et al. Survey of transfemoral amputee experience and priorities for the user-centered design of powered robotic transfemoral prostheses. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2021;18(1):168.
Wittenberg E, Thompson J, Nam CS, Franz JR. Neuroimaging of human balance control: a systematic review. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017;11:170.
Bruno V, Ronga I, Fossataro C, Galigani M, Sacco K, Garbarini F. Long-term limb immobilization modulates inhibition-related electrophysiological brain activity. Neuroimage. 2020;218: 116911.
Burianová H, Sowman PF, Marstaller L, Rich AN, Williams MA, Savage G, et al. Adaptive motor imagery: a multimodal study of immobilization-induced brain plasticity. Cereb Cortex. 2016;26(3):1072–80.
Garbarini F, Cecchetti L, Bruno V, Mastropasqua A, Fossataro C, Massazza G, et al. To move or not to move? Functional role of ventral premotor cortex in motor monitoring during limb immobilization. Cereb Cortex. 2019;29(1):273–82.
Koppelmans V, Bloomberg JJ, De Dios YE, Wood SJ, Reuter-Lorenz PA, Kofman IS, et al. Brain plasticity and sensorimotor deterioration as a function of 70 days head down tilt bed rest. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8): e0182236.
Opie GM, Evans A, Ridding MC, Semmler JG. Short-term immobilization influences use-dependent cortical plasticity and fine motor performance. Neuroscience. 2016;330:247–56.
Wanamaker AB, Andridge RR, Chaudhari AM. When to biomechanically examine a lower-limb amputee: a systematic review of accommodation times. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2017;41(5):431–45.
Omana H, Madou E, Montero-Odasso M, Payne MW, Viana R, Hunter SW. The effect of dual-task testing on the balance and gait of people with lower limb amputations: a systematic review. PM&R. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmrj.12702.
Hunter SW, Frengopoulos C, Holmes J, Viana R, Payne MWC. Dual-task related gait changes in individuals with trans-tibial lower extremity amputation. Gait Posture. 2018;61:403–7.
Morgan SJ, Hafner BJ, Kartin D, Kelly VE. Dual-task standing and walking in people with lower limb amputation: a structured review. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2018;42(6):652–66.
Burçak B, Kesikburun B, Köseoğlu BF, Öken Ö, Doğan A. Quality of life, body image, and mobility in lower-limb amputees using high-tech prostheses: a pragmatic trial. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2021;64(1): 101405.
Sarroca N, Valero J, Deus J, Casanova J, Luesma MJ, Lahoz M. Quality of life, body image and self-esteem in patients with unilateral transtibial amputations. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):12559.
Silva ADM, Furtado G, Dos Santos IP, da Silva CB, Caldas LR, Bernardes KO, et al. Functional capacity of elderly with lower-limb amputation after prosthesis rehabilitation: a longitudinal study. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2021;16(5):556–60.
Jayaraman C, Mummidisetty CK, Albert MV, Lipschutz R, Hoppe-Ludwig S, Mathur G, et al. Using a microprocessor knee (C-Leg) with appropriate foot transitioned individuals with dysvascular transfemoral amputations to higher performance levels: a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2021;18(1):88.